Finding More DNA Cousins for Free

Finding More DNA Cousins for FREE

July 13, 2017

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AdaEze Naja Chinyere Njoku

 

Hello Family!

We sure hope you all are doing well.  We know that many of you that have taken the autosomal DNA test at FTDNA.com 23andme.com , Ancestry.com or MyHeritage.com are waiting patiently for that breakthrough of finding an Africa DNA match.  

Some of us are not being so patient.  Logging into the accounts 7 to 10 times daily, yelling at folks because we can’t find that match.  Talking to ourselves AND responding..  Creeping up on your computer from the side, like agent 007….  Acting as if it is hiding that match from you.  It’s OK.  We’ve been there too.  Please read a book or go fishing or something Shuga.  More people are testing.  We have to be patient.  It took some of us over 7 YEARS to get an Africa DNA match.  Oh but when we did!!!! 

 

Now, we are not going to lie to you.  We all know that there is NO GUARANTEE that you will find an Africa DNA match.  Here are some ways to widen the net though.  These helpful options are steps that I have taken myself.  They have proven to be very helpful especially since many people have DNA tested at one company and have elected NOT to test at another.  

There is a place where your DNA raw data can go and meet up with other people’s DNA raw data that tested at different DNA testing companies.   You all can chillax for FREE!!  OK.. Let me clarify…. Its like a meet up for ya raw data.

The goal is to upload your DNA raw data to the websites that you have not tested or to the sites like Gedmatch.com to help you compare shared segments on Chromosomes between you and others that have also uploaded.

Read more: DNAtestedafricans.org

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Do You Know Who You Are? Do You Know Your Ancestors?

 

DNA

Those of us who had ancestors living in slavery in South Carolina Low Country, North Carolina and Georgia were likely from Senegal and Sierra-Leone. Do you know who you are, did you have ancestors on a plantation in these areas particularly?  A slave who could manage escape did not go north but to Florida  Seminole territory.

What pulled me in this direction was the multitude of matches from Brazil, Mexico, Iran, Syria and the Caribbean. I started to see names such as Sadi, Jahid, Fahid, Dajzar, and Raza.

Wrong or right, the surnames we are using are not our own. They bind us to the earth as a human being. Looking beyond that our ancestor used a different name. So when I see the strange names I want to dig for more. DNA has given us the opportunity to see the world internationally not narrowly focused.

The picture below is of Abraham, a Black Seminole Leader in the Second Seminole War.

 

Help Drive Research Forward for African Americans

23andMe Post

We believe genetics and the study of disease should be for everyone.
All ethnicities. All people.

Help drive research forward for African Americans.

Join now!

Questions: contact study-help@23andMe.com

Why your help is so important.

Less than 5% of research on the genetics of disease includes people of African ancestry. If people with diverse ancestries continue to be underrepresented in genetics research, then we risk missing key medical and other scientific discoveries that could benefit everyone.

If you participate in the African American Sequencing Project, you could help address this disparity. By sharing your genetic data with the scientific community, you can shape the future of genetics research to include people of African descent.

Only a fraction of genetic research studies have included people of African descent.

Popejoy, A. B. & Fullerton, S. M. Nature 538, 161-164 (2016).

See if you’re eligible

To be eligible for this study you must be a 23andMe customer, have consented to 23andMe Research, self identify as African or African American and be at least 18 years old.

How it works

You do not need to provide a new saliva sample — we will use the one you already sent us.

There is no cost to participate.

You consent to share your genetic data.

Enroll and agree to share your de-identified genetic information with researchers approved by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and qualified research partners of 23andMe.

None of your contact information or answers to 23andMe surveys will be shared.

We will sequence your genome.

If you are selected, we will send your saliva sample, already provided to 23andMe, to a lab for whole genome sequencing. Whole genome sequencing is a more thorough but also more costly review of your genome than that provided by the genotyping analysis used to generate your 23andMe reports. *This is extremely important. The real cost to an individual is about $1200 with most labs. Entire genome sequencing means all of your DNA in your body. I am a member of the Ethnicity Research Group studying and identify the location specific location of African and African-American ancestors and I also participate in the L2 study group, this later group requires identification with a person of African origin. right now these two groups are closed.

For more information on sequencing versus genotyping watch this video or read this article.

We will provide data to researchers around the world.

23andMe will share this sequenced genetic data with researchers by depositing it into a scientific database approved by the NIH. Approved researchers will have access to this data to conduct genetics research.

About this project

In October 2016, 23andMe was awarded a grant by the National Human Genome Research Institute, a major research arm of the National Institutes of Health, to fund the African American Sequencing Project.

This project is part of our broad commitment to diversity in genetics research. Learn more about 23andMe’s Roots into the Future Project.

Privacy and Security

We do not share your genetic information without your explicit authorization. Only you can decide if you would like to participate in this project by authorizing 23andMe to share your information with outside researchers.

Even though you previously consented to participate in 23andMe Research, you will need to read and accept additional consents to participate in this study.

Hi. Have additional questions about the African American Sequencing Project?

If you don’t see your question here, get in touch with us.

  • What does it mean to be a research participant in this project?

  • Why is 23andMe conducting the African American Sequencing Project?

  • Will you share my genetic data with third parties?

  • Do I need to provide a new saliva sample to 23andMe?

  • How will you protect the confidentiality of my data?

  • What is whole genome sequencing? How is this process different from genotyping, the process previously used by 23andMe to analyze the DNA in my saliva sample?

  • How do you select participants for this study?

  • Will I have access to my sequenced data?

  • What am I agreeing to if I accept the consent documents for this project?

Discovering DNA Communities – Ethnic Origins

A new study uses genetic data and genealogical research from more than 700,000 Ancestry.com <ancestry.com> customers to reveal migration trends in North America over the past 300 years. Findings, which were published in the journal Nature Communications <www.nature.com/article/ncomms14238>, are the basis of AncestryDNA’s Genetic Communities user experience.
According to an Ancestry,com announcement, the study shows “how specific groups of people are connected through their DNA, what places they called home, and which migration paths they followed to get there.” The results correspond strongly with documented history and the results of genetic data done by 23andMe, GPS DNA and Family Tree DNA.
Researchers first identified genetically related groups and smaller clusters within them. Then they used family trees associated with those similar DNA profiles to describe the geographic origins and migration patterns within each cluster. Of specific interest were communities that have develop distinguishable genetic patterns due to “gene flow barriers” such as isolated geographic locations or cultural identity that encourages mating within the community.
Unfortunately, there has not been a methodology research model to reasonably determine African-American and Native-American clusters based on the above mention. The DNA Communities does afford African-American and Native-Americans the opportunity to identify additional relationships based on the DNA Community findings.
If you are a member of FamilyDNA, GPS DNA or 23andMe you will find similar clusters and ethnic communities base on similar methods. The National Geographic Project (Geno 2) was the first and is still actively working to define their results. The only draw back for most is the cost which is over $200 to participate.

 

Mitochondrial Eve (mtDNA)

Mitochondrial Eve

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Haplogroup Modern humans
Early diversification.PNG
Possible time of origin c. 100–230 kya[1]
Possible place of origin East Africa
Ancestor n/a
Descendants Mitochondrial macro-haplogroups L0, L1, and L5
Defining mutations None

In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman. Mitochondrial Eve lived later than Homo heidelbergensis and the emergence of Homo neanderthalensis, but earlier than the out of Africa migration,[2] but her age is not known with certainty; a 2009 estimate cites an age between c. 152 and 234 thousand years ago (95% CI);[3] a 2013 study cites a range of 99–148 thousand years ago.[4]

Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is almost exclusively passed from mother to offspring without recombination (see the exception at paternal mtDNA transmission), most mtDNA in every living person differs only by the mutations that have occurred over generations in the germ cell mtDNA since the conception of the original “Mitochondrial Eve”.

The male analog to the Mitochondrial Eve is the Y-chromosomal Adam, the member of Homo sapiens sapiens from whom all living humans are patrilineally descended. Rather than mtDNA, the inherited DNA in the male case is the nuclear Y chromosome. Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam need not have lived at the same time.[5]

As of 2013, estimates for mt-MRCA and Y-MRCA alike are still subject to substantial uncertainty; thus, Y-MRCA has been estimated to have lived during a wide range of times from 180,000 to 581,000 years ago[6][7][8] (with a most likely age of between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago, roughly consistent with the estimate for mt-MRCA[4][9]).

The name “Mitochondrial Eve” alludes to biblical Eve.[10] This has led to repeated misrepresentations or misconceptions in journalistic accounts on the topic. The title of “Mitochondrial Eve” is not permanently fixed to a single individual, but rather shifts forward in time over the course of human history as maternal lineages become extinct. Unlike her biblical namesake, she was not the only living human female of her time. However, by the definition of Mitochondrial Eve, her female contemporaries, though they may have descendants alive today, do not have any descendants today who descend in an unbroken female line of descent.

The National Genographic Project Genetic Markers

 

 

Dr. Spencer Wells, explains how genetic markers can be used to build a family tree for everyone alive today.

https://player.theplatform.com/p/ngs/geno-embed-player/select/dIUjaYsSX4AU

 

Resource: The Nstional Geongraphic “The National Genographic Project, accessed May 1, 2017, www.genographic.nationalgenohraphic.com

 

New or Just Getting Started with Genealogy or Family History Research

 

New or Just Getting Started with Genealogy or Family History Research has been written continuously by authors Louis Gates, Tony Burroughs and others, providing great direction and tools to build your genealogy skills. The tools for building a strong African-American genealogy tree lies within the methodology and structural approach. It is going to be frustrating at times, too slow and too much time and attention to details. The rewards however is a family tree you will be proud to share with family. A good detective looks for clues, evidence, who, why, when, where and how in their investigation to reach sound conclusions. Evidence Explain-Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace by Elizabeth Shown Mills, 3rd Edition 2015 is an excellent source you must read. Understand that genealogy starts with you and proceeds backwards. So start with your self and add your mother and father, grandparents on both sides and their parents on both sides and  you have now started your tree. Add your siblings, aunts, uncles and their children and continue. Gather as many family records as possible if you can,. Often our relatives are protective of the information or want to know exactly what you are doing. Example of discovery, I found old photographs, newspaper clippings, awards and a sundry of items never seen before of Annabelle Boothe my mother’s sister. This gave me a lot of information about my mothers sisters life I never knew. I complied all of her material into one folder along with a Family Group Sheet, Source Summary, Ancestral Chart, Research Extract and Photographs.
I was able to confirm information I had researched on my grandmother (Saluda Slade) and my grand step-mother (Annelee Thomas) and both great grandmothers. My grandfather (Samuel Johns) and his father (Allen Johns) and his father (Jack Johns) and his father John B. Johns who was a slaveholder in Wake County, NC. I also learned that some Johns after the Civil War changed their name to Jones, Johnson and Johnnes. There were also some family members sold before and the during the Civil War. Note: When I get to DNA, I will point this out to you by looking at matches with 20 cMs to 40 cMs (centimorgans) over at least one segment or more.  For right now I will continue with genealogy. Collect, scan or photograph family records and papers. Organize all of your records into genealogy charts that trace blood lines and group people in family units. 
Next Step
The goal and objective is to research your family back to 1860. I know some are saying that is a brick wall. It’s a brick wall if you let it be for you. Example, my great-grandfather Allen Johns was a slave born in 1823 and court records of the Johns family show the plantation locations as Wake County, NC and researching old maps I can pin point his location. I just went beyond 1860. I found his brothers Washington and Mark Johns and an old family photograph. What is the history of that location and the people who lived on and around the plantation? According to a journal written by another relative (Gwendolyn Johns) my great-grandfather Allen John’s mother was African and sold to another plantation when John B. Johns decided to take a wife. Her name was Elizabeth; no known location or name change was provided. Typical of that period among owners. I found two cemeteries where a lot of family members are buried in North Carolina, about 150 individuals and some with unmarked graves outside of the cemetery walls. I found this information looking at the Johns Family in Colonial Maryland and Colonial Virginia historical records.
Research your family to 1860 and beyond identify the last Slave Owner (if you cannot you are not going to get very far). Side note, I hear several times a year that my ancestors were not enslaved. I will not dispute that, but tell me how you know that and how can you verify that information? Did any one come from Africa?  Remember evidence is important. Research the slave owner, the history of slavery and understanding the environmental conditions, Federal, State and Local laws, slave and slave owner customs and practices. Hint: Look at the census before 1860 and you will find slaves listed with a monetary value with just ages sometimes with their first name. http://Afrogensis.com.
Many African-Americans only know the surface of their rich history, so I highly recommend researching your history not told in history books. Example, many African-Americans know very little, if anything about the migration to England, Spain and Portugal mainly in the late 1500’s. I was told that we arrived from Africa however,  not so true for so many.  We were shipped to the Caribbean and South America in the millions and only around 450,000 actually arrived from Africa to the Americas (US).
It is imperative you research Canada, Caribbean, India, South America and Europe for ancestors. With the pioneering effort in Genetic Genealogy we can cross the pond for our ancestors and that is beginning to happen. I suggest you subscribe to Ancestry UK, libraries in other countries or International. More testing for health reasons are being done in African which will benefit genealogists.

New or Just Getting Started with Genealogy or Family History Research P2

                                 I invite you to spend a little time understanding the basics of genealogy or family history research. You may be excited and ready to jump right into DNA. A little genealogical effort to building your family tree is imperative to using DNA results. There are thousands of eBooks, books, literature and websites dedicated to genealogy and family history goals and objectives. I will provide information I think is helpful to avoid the most common pit falls that even the most seasoned genealogist occasionally fall prey to.
Do Your Home Work
So I will tell you that you need to start at home. Play detective when looking for information and you start at home
Other places to discoveries your relatives:
Birth records, marriage and death certificates
Newspaper articles or clippings,including obituaries and wedding and anniversary announcements
Religious records
Family Bible
Letters and addressed envelopes
Military, school, occupational, business, land and legal records
Diaries and journals
If there’s family members your age or older (second, third cousins included), pick up the phone and contact them today; not next week or next month but now. Get started today.as a family detective and ask questions. You will need to generate a list of questions before you  start contacting family members.
Don’t Believe Everything You  Hear or Read
Example: All Africans came to America (Not true, historical evidence proves it)
Capture What You Learn
There are two forms I think are important and essential in your quest to understand and learn about your genetic roots. The pedigree or ancestral chart shows your direct-line ancestry of a particular individual and the descendancy chart or descendant tree (a chart which a selected ancestor appears at the top, and all descendants are depicted in successive generations in rows below him or her)
Pedigree Chart
Left side of the tree Y-Chromosome Line (Paternal), Right side of the tree mt-DNA Line (Maternal)

ancestorchart

Descendancy Chart

desctopdown

Ancestry/Pedigree Chart records the ancestors from whom you directly descend–those for whom you intend to compile and complete and correct a family unit. Id shows at a glance the progress you have made towards this goal and what remains to be done.

my-ancestors

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