Introducing The DNA Match Review Page 23&Me

 

 

 

If you’ve taken a MyHeritage DNA test or uploaded your DNA data to MyHeritage, then you will have received a list of your DNA Matches. The list shows people whose DNA matches yours, the percentage of DNA you share, and your possible relationship. DNA results can imply several possible relationships between you and a DNA Match, such as 3rd – 4th cousin, but now you’d like to understand how you are related to the match. Where do you go from here?

We’ve just released a new feature — the DNA Match Review page — to help you answer that question. The new page offers a plethora of detailed information about each of your DNA Matches. Your DNA Match details are now consolidated into one place with different sections that will help you discover how the match may be related to you. This can open the door to new connections and discoveries to advance your family history research.

Below we describe the Match Review page comprehensively. We recommend reading this in depth because it includes important information about exciting new features, some of which are available only on MyHeritage.

Accessing the Review Match Page

On the DNA Matches list, click the “Review match” button in the bottom right corner of any of your matches, as shown below.

Accessing the new DNA Match Review page (click to zoom)

If you need a reminder on how to take full advantage of the features of the DNA Matches list, such as the powerful filters, see our previous blog post.

The DNA Match Review page shows all relevant data about the match, combining information from DNA and family trees. It is displayed in an easy to use side-by-side comparison. Here’s how the page looks, and below this image, we’ll breakdown these sections for you.

DNA Match Review page (click to zoom)

The Match Review page includes the following sections:

Smart Matches

Smart Matching™ is a MyHeritage technology that matches people in your family tree with people in other family trees that users all over the world have created on MyHeritage.

The presence of Smart Matches increases the confidence of DNA Matches — If you share a percentage of DNA with someone, and your trees also have Smart Matches, it increases the likelihood that you are related and makes it easier for you to understand how you are related. You can contact the match and learn from each other about your shared common relatives.

Smart Matches™ section (click to zoom)

When a DNA Match is correct, i.e. is not a false positive, it means that you and the match have a common ancestor, from which both of you inherited some DNA. The DNA Match is found by MyHeritage if both of you inherited the same segments of DNA from that ancestor. If you have Smart Matches with the family tree of your DNA Match, they may include your common ancestor, or at the least help point you in the direction of that ancestor.

We’ve found that in many cases, when DNA brings two relatives together, neither of them knows about the other and it is rare for their family trees to overlap. That’s why in most of the DNA Matches you’ll review, there won’t be a Smart Matches section. When it does exist, you should rejoice as you will likely be able to find out exactly how you are related.

Ancestral Surnames

Ancestral surnames are the surnames of your direct ancestors (or the surnames of the direct ancestors of your DNA Match), which are retrieved from your family trees on MyHeritage. In DNA context, ancestral surnames are very important because every person is an aggregation of DNA segments from his or her ancestors. Therefore, the ancestral surnames indicate the families from which people have inherited their DNA, assuming their family trees are correct and faithfully depict their biological roots.

On MyHeritage, most DNA customers have family trees, which is very fortunate as it allows us to retrieve ancestral surnames and compare them for most DNA Matches.

If you and a DNA Match have shared ancestral surnames, this section will show the ancestral surnames you have in common – those surnames that appear in both your family trees, going back 10 generations.

Shared Ancestral Surnames section (click to zoom)

This section can be extremely useful in determining which common ancestor you and the match share, helping you identify a potential common ancestor. Be careful though if the ancestral surname is very common, like Miller or Smith, because that is very likely not the same family. However, if the ancestral surname that you and your match share is extremely rare, such as Dankworth or Culpepper, you’re certainly on the cusp of understanding how you are related.

Click on the button “View all ancestral surnames” in the bottom right corner of this section, to see a new window with an alphabetized list of all the ancestral surnames in both your family tree and your DNA Match’s family tree. In this new window, you will be able to scroll through all ancestral surnames, and the surnames you share will be highlighted in purple.

Viewing a list of all ancestral surnames (click to zoom)

Don’t have any shared ancestral surnames? Then we will still show you the ancestral surnames in both your family tree and the match’s family tree. This could be helpful if one of their surnames is similar to yours (though with a different spelling), or perhaps a surname will ring a bell and remind you of a relative not yet listed in your tree.

For example, you may have ancestors with the last name MacQuoid but you don’t know exactly where they connect in your tree, so you’ve never added them. After reviewing a DNA Match’s ancestral surnames, you might notice they have the surname MacQuoid in their tree, and you can begin putting together the puzzle of how you are related.

Next to each ancestral surname, we also list associated countries where vital events (birth, marriage, death, burial, etc.) occurred for the ancestors with that surname. This will be useful when trying to understand the possible relationship you might have with your DNA Match. For example, if you both share an ancestral surname from the same country, it can increase the strength of the match. You might not get excited about sharing the ancestral surname of Levine, but if both of you have Levine from Hungary, that could be more interesting. In addition, if you don’t have a shared surname, but you do share ancestors from the same countries, it could mean that you both share roots in the same region.

The list of ancestral surnames and their countries, even beyond the context of DNA, is very handy. We recommend for genealogists to copy the list of ancestral surnames and use it when they email other genealogists since the list serves as a convenient way of expressing one’s research interests. Some genealogists even use the ancestral surnames list as their email signature!

Shared DNA Matches

Shared DNA Matches are people who share DNA with both you and your DNA Match, meaning both of you have the same person in your list of DNA Matches. This is another way of increasing the confidence in your DNA Match and helps you learn which side of the family your DNA Match is on.

MyHeritage has a unique way of showing Shared DNA Matches. Unlike other testing services, we display – in one chart – how both you and your DNA Match are genetically related to the same person.

Shared DNA Matches section (click to zoom)

In this section, the name of each Shared DNA Match is clickable and allows you to go to the DNA Match Review page for that specific match.

If you and your DNA Match have many Shared DNA Matches, you can click on the button “Show more DNA Matches” in the bottom right corner of the section to review all of your Shared DNA Matches.

The Shared DNA Matches page helps you cluster our DNA Matches. Each cluster may indicate matches having the same common ancestor (sometimes there may be several different ancestors). You can collaborate with your matches to try to determine who that common ancestor is.

In time, you will learn to appreciate the power of the Shared DNA Matches page. For example, if you review a match and spot your paternal uncle in the list of shared matches, that is a good indication that the match is paternal for you. Testing more of your relatives will help you get more value from the Shared DNA Matches page, as it will help you determine the path to the common ancestor for many of your matches.

Pedigree Charts

Pedigree Charts show the main individual and their direct line of ancestors, i.e., parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc. These charts are especially helpful when looking for common ancestors and for identifying common names, which can provide an idea of how you are related.

The Pedigree Chart section shows your match’s direct ancestors in one tab and shows your own pedigree chart in an adjacent tab. Viewing the Pedigree Chart of your match’s family tree in this way makes it easy to check where your trees may overlap, and see if you spot anything familiar.

Pedigree Charts section (click to zoom)

The Pedigree Chart is condensed to show a lot of information in little space.
To view the full tree, click “View full tree” at the bottom right corner.

Women appear in the Pedigree Chart with their maiden names. To see more information about any person, hover the mouse over the card. A callout will open, as shown below, adding more information, such as birthplace and death place. It will also provide you with handy links to view the family tree around that person, visit the profile or research that person in MyHeritage’s huge collection of 8.1 billion historical records.

Person callout in Pedigree Chart (click to zoom)

If you are using MyHeritage DNA and still don’t have a family tree on MyHeritage, please build one now. It is very helpful for making sense of your DNA Matches and will also be helpful for other users whose DNA matches your own.

Whenever viewing the family tree of another person, living ancestors will be privatized.

Shared Ethnicities

For every DNA test taken on MyHeritage, or uploaded to MyHeritage, we calculate an Ethnicity Estimate, which finds ethnic origins. MyHeritage offers a breakdown of 42 different ethnic regions – more than any other major commercial DNA testing company.

The Shared Ethnicities section compares the Ethnicity Estimate of your DNA Match to your own to find similarities. This interesting section is visual and only displayed on MyHeritage this way. You will see the exact percentage break down of your ethnicities side-by-side with your DNA Match’s ethnicities, and those you share will be highlighted in purple.

Shared Ethnicities section (click to zoom)

The Shared Ethnicities section can be useful for indicating the regions where you and your DNA Match may have common ancestral origins. Be aware though that you might share an ethnicity with a DNA Match, but not because you inherited it from the common ancestor that you share. Each of you may have gotten that ethnicity from other ancestors that you do not share.

You can use a toggle on the top right corner to show only shared ethnicities or all ethnicities. Click any ethnicity for more information about it.

Next steps

We’re not done with the Review Match page yet! Additional features are on the way to make the Review Match page even more informative and useful, such as the commonly requested Chromosome Browser, so keep an eye out for them.

Cost

For MyHeritage DNA customers, some sections on the Review Match page require a family site subscription to view them in their entirety. Users with a Premium, Premium Plus, or Complete subscription will have full access to all sections on the Review Match page, while Basic users will have a partial view of some sections.

Note: Some features listed above may not be shown for each of your DNA Matches if not relevant for that match. For example, if you match with someone who doesn’t have a family tree, then for that match you will not see tree components such as the Pedigree Chart, ancestral surnames and Smart Matches.

Conclusion

Take advantage of our new DNA Match Review page and delve into your DNA Matches. Matches previously overlooked can now be explored for new possible family connections. Instead of piecing together the puzzle yourself from scratch, these new tools will help you better understand how you are related to your matches.

Not in on the DNA action yet? Order your MyHeritage DNA kit today or, if you’ve already had your DNA tested by another company, upload your DNA data to MyHeritage and receive a comprehensive DNA Ethnicity Analysis and DNA Matching for free.

Enjoy!

MyHeritage Team

Leave a comment

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  • Jason Lee

    August 22, 2017

    Where’s the chromosome browser?

    • Esther

      August 23, 2017

      Hi Jason,

      We hope to release a chromosome browser in the near future. Stay tuned!

      Best,
      Esther / MyHeritage Team

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DNA Test Options, Indigenous African Results and More

DNA Test Options, Indigenous African Results and More

DNAtestedafricans.org for further information. DNAtestedafricans.org is not a testing company and does not suggest any of the companies listed in this article. We offer a connection to purchase DNA kits, but it is your decision based on what you want to test for ancestry. The top three testing companies based on company reputation, services offered, testing methods, software grade, research and scientific evidence, CLIA and FDA compliance (US based) customer reviews, price, customer service and return policy.

#1. CRI Genetics (Cellular Research Institute)

#2. Family Tree DNA

#3 Living DNA Your Ancestry

for further reading go to http://www.geneticsdigest.com/best_ancestry_genealogy_dna_test

 

DNA Test can be done at 12, 25, 37, 67 or 111 markers. I recommend the 67-marker test, it gives you the best results for your money.

For more information or questions contact: DNAtestedafricans.org or africanamericangenealogydna.com

August 28, 2017

African Greetings Family!

   We hope you are all doing well.  Let’s start with a video of brother Saad Tafida.  He is an Indigenous African that tested to learn about his ancestry and to find his family in the Diaspora.  He is Fulani.  (He will tell you more about that on the video so we don’t want to spoil it).

   As it turns out, he is my eldest daughter’s DNA match.  She is able to watch these videos and learn more about a line of her culture and for that, we thank Saad tremendously!  We need more like him to share and explore with us.

Here are his results

He then downloaded his DNA raw data from the website that he tested with.  Then he uploaded to Gedmatch.com He speaks about that in his video.  He found more relatives that NEVER knew their ancestry.

 He uploaded the DNA Raw data to a few websites to find more family.  Click here to see how to do it.   https://www.dnatestedafricans.org/single-post/2017/07/13/Finding-More-DNA-Cousins-for-FREE

BE ENCOURAGED!!  More Indigenous Africans are testing and are looking for us as well too!!  

Now, here is some info on the current sale prices for a few major DNA testing companies.  You can click on each image to go to the website.  So now, let’s talk about the tests.

My Heritage DNA Test Kit $69.00

 

 

 

 

 

Everyone has asked, how do I get started on my DNA testing journey. This is a great place to start. Save this note because it is very useful to return to in the future.. Please read below.

We are NOT a DNA testing company. We do NOT sell DNA tests or profit from the sales of any tests. You must purchase the DNA test on your own. We simply explain what is available for YOU to research and determine what works for you. The information is provided by those of us that have DNA tested with EACH of the companies listed below.

We are a community of Volunteers focused on the ACRO concept. ACRO means African Culture and Reconciliation Organization. We coordinate cultural reception and integration via language classes, naming ceremonies and other enriching events after you have received your results.

We facilitate reconciliation of the DNA Tested African Diaspora and their African ethnic groups of ancestry. We provide you with 3rd party tools for YOU to research so you can determine which DNA Testing company and /or 3rd party tools for family tree building are most useful to you. We provide helpful templates for initial communications with your DNA matches as well as methods on how to get the most out of your test results.

 

Here is a good starting point to Research your AtDNA, MtDNA and the male YDNA. Please see the chart below.

Green is the autosomal DNA that can be tested by Ancestry, FTDNA Myheritage, and 23andme (they also provide DNA matches)

Blue is the YDNA that can be tested by FTDNA’s YDNA test (they provide DNA matches) and African Ancestry (they do NOT provide DNA matches)

Red is the MtDNA that can be tested by FTDNA’s Mt DNA test (they provide DNA matches) and African Ancestry (they do NOT provide DNA matches)

23andMe DBA Test Kit

“The information …..is meant to provide a very simple explanation of your Y-DNA and MtDNA Ancestry used for genealogical purposes. Scientists estimate that the total amount of Y-DNA of a man is less than 1% and the total amount of MtDNA in either a man or a woman is less than 1%. It is important to understand that after taking a Y-DNA and an MtDNA test, the majority of everyone’s DNA remains untested and it is called Autosomal DNA, with another 5% of a female’s DNA or 2 1/2% of a male’s DNA being x-chromosomal DNA. In a man this would mean roughly 95.5% of his DNA is Autosomal and in a woman that figure would be roughly 94%. “

Click here or copy and paste ~~ > https://phillipsdnaproject.com/faq-… ~~

Source: https://phillipsdnaproject.com/faq-sections/312-your-total-dna-makeup

UPDATE: We have been advised that African Ancestry does not do the Admix test anymore. Please check with their website to confirm.

Subscribe at www.dnatestedafricans.org

1. http://www.ancestry.com/ $79 Autosomal test ( saliva ) that analyses DNA from all of the contributors of your DNA. Both males and females can take this test. They test 700,000 markers !! Your DNA is tested 40 times and they provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. It takes about 6 to 8 weeks to receive a email from ancestry notifying you that your results are in. Sign into your ancestry account and explore your results.

You can download your DNA raw data from ancestry and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

You can also upload your DNA raw data to https://www.familytreedna.com/ for FREE.

Limitations of Ancestry: This test will not tell you the African ethnic groups that you share ancestry with. However, you may find African DNA matches that can tell you their ethnic group(s) and where they come from. Also when you upload to Gedmatch, you may find African matches that have also uploaded there.

www.ancestry.com

Ancestry.com Results of an African American

 

 

 

2. https://www.23andme.com/ $99 Autosomal test ( saliva ) that analyses DNA from all of the contributors of your DNA. Both males and females can take this test. They provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. Check with 23andme to determine the current wait time for their test results. Once you receive the email that your results are in, sign into your 23andme account and explore your results.

Advantage:  Over 4 million people around the world have DNA tested.  If you match them, you will see them in your DNA match list when you sign into your account.  You can download your DNA raw data from 23andme and upload it to Gedmatch.com (https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

You can also upload your DNA raw data to https://www.familytreedna.com/ for FREE.

Limitations of 23andme: This test will not tell you the African ethnic groups that you share ancestry with. However, you may find African DNA matches that can tell you their ethnic group(s) and where they come from. Also when you upload to Gedmatch, you may find African matches that have also uploaded there.

YOU research, YOU decide

https://www.23andme.com/

23andme.com Results

 

 

3. https://www.familytreedna.com/ Starting at $79 for the family finder test.   ( cheek swab ) **If you already DNA tested at ancestry.com or 23andme.com , please go to FTDNA and upload your DNA raw data from those sites to this one for FREE. It will SAVE you the cost of $99. FTDNA’s Autosomal DNA test is $99. (Keep in mine that your autosomal DNA is 50 % from your father and 50% from your mother) 

They also have Mtdna tests for your Direct maternal line and YDNA tests for your direct paternal line. Only males can take the YDNA test. See the website for prices on their MtDNA and YDNA tests.

Regarding their Autosomal DNA test, they provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. Check with FTDNA to determine the current wait time for their test results. Once you receive the email that your results are in, sign into your FTDNA account and explore your results. You can download your DNA raw data from FTDNA and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. You can download your DNA raw data from FTDNA and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, Myheritage.com , 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

Limitations for FTDNA: Their African database is LOW so you may not have very many matches. If you have a higher percentage of NON- African DNA, you may have a lot of DNA matches.

FTDNA.com Results

 

4.  Visit www.MyHeritage.com to see if their company is for you. Starting at $89 (often times on sale  for around $69) . Their AtDNA (autosomal) is a (cheek swab) test.  The Autosomal DNA test, provides you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches (actual relatives)  that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. (Keep in mine that your autosomal DNA is 50 % from your father and 50% from your mother) 

Advantage:  This website accepts DNA raw data from ancestry.com , FTDNA.com and 23andme.com.  So if you already tested with these other companies, you only need to upload the data.  If you test with this company, you can download your DNA raw data from MyHeritage and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, Myheritage.com , 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

Limitations:  The DNA match database is still growing so you may not have a lot of matches  (cousins) on Myheritage.  However, uploading the DNA raw data to www.Gedmatch.com will surely give you more DNA matches.  

MyHeritage.com Results

 

5. Visit http://africanancestry.com/home/ to see if their company is for you. Starting at $200. Their MtDNA test about 8 markers of the HVR1 region. I would not recommend this company as a first choice at this point but it may be good after you have found that you have an African haplogroup with another company like FTDNA. This is a cheek swab test 

Advantage: If you took the YDNA test or MTDNA test with FTDNA and found that you have an African haplogroup, you may consider contacting them and paying around $200 to receive a certificate stating what African ethnic group(s) you share ancestry with. Their MtDNA and YDNA test starts at $285. ** About 35% of African Americans do NOT have African Mtdna line or YDNA line. See their website for details. Make an INFORMED decision.

Limitations of African Ancestry: They are the most costly DNA testing company for their YDNA, MtDNA test, and Autosomal. They do not test as many DNA markers as the other companies. The DNA raw data cannot be uploaded to any other website. They do not provide any DNA matches. If your test reveals your MtDNA line or your YDNA line is not African, you will not be able to find African relatives or African ethnic groups through them. You will need to test with one of the above companies. Source: http://shop.africanancestry.com/Mat… and http://shop.africanancestry.com/Pat… .

This test will not tell you that you are 100% of anything. It will not provide ANY percentages of your ethnicity. The percentages that they provide is a sequence similarity score. They test LESS than 1% of your DNA. The Cofounder can explain this to you.

 

AfricanAncestry.com Certificate Example

 

 

Make an INFORMED decision.

Please visit the website for each DNA test, research it and determine which company works for YOU!!

www.DNATestedAfricans.org

Note: All images belong to their perspective companies. This is for educational purposes to encourage research in order to make an informed decision about DNA testing.

Originally posted : https://www.facebook.com/notes/dna-tested-african-descendants/getting-started-dna-testing-options/1540241299613571/

 

Atlantic Slave Trade Genealogy

 

In order to help you find your DNA cousin’s, you need to understand the history of American slavery and culture today and an understanding of the East Coast of Africa. How to map your identity to a time in place. I am Igbo of a community long ago in African in Senegal with DNA links to Nigeria and Benin. Our Ancestors practiced the Islamic faith. We were forced to abandon our beliefs and accept Christianity by Protestants, Catholics, Methodist, Episcopal and the Church of England.
GenealogyBank Blog: Access August 21, 2017: https://blog,genealogybank.com/african-American-slave-trade-ships-records-for-genealogy.html

 

African American Slave Trade: Ships & Records for Genealogy
By Gena Philibert-Ortega March 3, 2014
Introduction: Gena Philibert-Ortega is a genealogist and author of the book “From the Family Kitchen.” In this guest blog post, Gena searches old newspapers and other online resources to learn more about the African slave trade in America.

Throughout the course of the Atlantic Slave Trade, an estimated 12 million Africans were captured in their homeland and forcibly shipped across the Atlantic, on more than 35,000 voyages, starting in the 17th century* The African Diaspora scattered Africans throughout the Caribbean and Americas. The first slave ship to land in Colonial America went to Jamestown, Virginia, in August 1619. The name of the first African slave ship out of the United States was Desire, which sailed out of Massachusetts eighteen years later. This forced migration caused the displacement, torture, enslavement, and murder of many Africans.**

African slaves brought to the Americas were part of the “Middle Passage,” a voyage that began in Europe, stopped in Africa to unload supplies and pick up enslaved human cargo, and then traveled to American ports on the eastern coast to trade that human cargo for goods that were then shipped back to Europe.
History of the African Slave Trade in Early America and the United States Infographic (Note: the article continues after this infographic.)
History of the African Slave Trade in America
This troubling part of American history—and important part of African American history—can be uncovered and explored with patient historical research, including searching in old newspapers such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives.
Laws Slow—but Don’t Stop—the African Slave Trade
It would seem that the African slave trade to America would have been stopped by a law passed by the U.S. Congress in March 1807 that stated:
“That from and after the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and eight, it shall not be lawful to import or bring into the United States or the territories thereof from any foreign kingdom, place, or country, any negro, mulatto, or person of colour, with intent to hold, sell, or dispose of such negro, mulatto, or person of colour, as a slave, or to be held to service or labour.”***
Genealogy Tip:
Read more about U.S. legislation in the 1800s regarding slavery in GenealogyBank’s Historical Documents section which contains The American State Papers and more.
However, the Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves and a similar law passed in the United Kingdom didn’t end the practice of the slave trade. Slave ships illegally continued to bring their human cargo to U.S. ports, and American newspapers continued reporting on the occasional capture of a slave ship into the 1840s. (Two ships, the Wanderer and the Clotilde, are reported to have brought slaves to the United States well into the 1850s.) As with the passage of most laws, those who would break the law don’t end their criminal deeds; instead, a black market thrives.
Slave Advertisements in Newspapers
Eighteenth-century newspapers found in GenealogyBank’s archives report of the comings and goings of slave ships when the African slave trade was still legal. From advertisements to shipping news articles, researchers can find mentions of slave ships names, their captains, and descriptions of the people on board.
In some cases, advertisements for the upcoming sale of slaves included information on the ship they would be arriving on. In this example from a 1785 South Carolina newspaper, Fisher & Edwards advertise that the ship Commerce, under Captain Thomas Morton, will be arriving from Africa’s Gold Coast with “upwards of 200 prime slaves” for sale.
ad for a slave auction, South-Carolina Weekly Gazette newspaper advertisement 6 August 1785
South-Carolina Weekly Gazette (Charleston, South Carolina), 6 August 1785, page 3
An earlier South Carolina advertisement proclaims that the slaves aboard Captain Buncombe’s ship Venus are “mostly stout men.”
ad for a slave auction, South-Carolina Weekly Gazette newspaper advertisement 17 July 1784
South-Carolina Weekly Gazette (Charleston, South Carolina), 17 July 1784, page 4
Slave Ship “Shipping News” in Newspapers
Articles under “Shipping News” or “Marine List” headlines are a good place to start searching for information about slave ships, crew, and cargo.
In this example from a 1799 New York newspaper, we see updates on various ships including information about deaths on ships. We also see that the Gurbridge and Mary were bringing slaves, and to whom they were being brought.
shipping news, Commercial Advertiser newspaper article 31 July 1799
Commercial Advertiser (New York, New York), 31 July 1799, page 3
Where to Find African Slave Trade & Slave Ship Records
After exhausting your research in newspapers, learn more about a particular slave ship by consulting the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database website, which houses information about slave ships from 1514 to 1866.
In some cases, digital collections may hold slave ship manifests, such as this example from the Metropolitan New York Library Council Digital Collections.
Don’t forget to look for finding aids like this one from the New York Historical Society’s Guide to the Slavery Collection 1709-1899.
The National Archives (NARA) houses resources that can assist in your research:
The Slave Manifests of Coastwise Vessels Filed at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1807-1860 website has “manifests filed with the collector of customs at New Orleans, Louisiana, of slaves transported in coastwise trade to or from New Orleans during the period 1807-1860.”
The Slave Manifests for the Port of Philadelphia, 08/1800-04/1860 website is from the same Record Group as the above manifests, Record Group 36: Records of the U.S. Customs Service, 1745-1997.
African American Slave Trade Infographic Research Sources:
http://www.africanamericancharleston.com/lowcountry.html
http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/slavery.html
http://www.dcte.udel.edu/hlp2/resources/slavery/slaves-US-1790-1860.pdf
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery/videos/origins-of-slavery
http://history1800s.about.com/od/slaveryinamerica/a/1807slaveact.htm
http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/120201/met_7970180.html
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2005696251/
http://www.nps.gov/jame/historyculture/the-Royal-African-Company-supplying-slaves-to-jamestown.htm
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/on-african-american-migrations/
http://terrain.org/2012/columns/desires-past/
http://www.tennessee.gov/tsla/exhibits/blackhistory/aahtimelin.htm
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/02/AR2006090201097.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1688_Germantown_Quaker_Petition_Against_Slavery
http://www.yale.edu/glc/aces/germantown.htm

These online websites can be helpful, but research on the name of a slave ship should begin with historical newspapers. It’s in their advertisements and news articles that you will find mentions of the slave ships’ cargo, crew, and destination.
You are free to share the History of the African Slave Trade in Early America and the United States Infographic on your blog or website using the embed code below.
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* The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces. Accessed 23 February 2014.
** “March 2, 1807.” This Week in History, March. http://www.peacebuttons.info/E-News/images/peacehistorymarch.htm. Accessed 23 February 2014.
*** “An Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves into any Port or Place Within the Jurisdiction of the United States, From and After the First Day of January, in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sl004.asp. Accessed 23 February 2014.

Proposed Algorithm to Study DNA Faster

Scientists propose an algorithm to study DNA faster and more accurately

January 18, 2016
Stylized image of DNA
Stylized image of DNA. Credit: bioinformatics101.wordpress.com

A team of scientists from Germany, the United States and Russia, including Dr. Mark Borodovsky, a Chair of the Department of Bioinformatics at MIPT, have proposed an algorithm to automate the process of searching for genes, making it more efficient. The new development combines the advantages of the most advanced tools for working with genomic data. The new method will enable scientists to analyse DNA sequences faster and more accurately and identify the full set of genes in a genome.

Although the paper describing the  only appeared recently in the journal Bioinformatics, which is published by Oxford Journals, the proposed method has already proven to be very popular—the computer  has been downloaded by more than 1500 different centres and laboratories worldwide. Tests of the algorithm have shown that it is considerably more accurate than other similar algorithms.

The development involves applications of the cross-disciplinary field of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics combines mathematics, statistics and computer science to study biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA and protein structures. DNA, which is fundamentally an information molecule, is even sometimes depicted in computerized form (see Fig. 1) in order to emphasize its role as a molecule of biological memory. Bioinformatics is a very topical subject; every new sequenced genome raises so many additional questions that scientists simply do not have time to answer them all. So automating processes is key to the success of any bioinformatics project, and these algorithms are essential for solving a wide variety of problems.

One of the most important areas of bioinformatics is annotating genomes – determining which particular DNA molecules are used to synthesize RNA and proteins (see Fig. 2). These parts –  – are of great scientific interest. The fact is that in many studies, scientists do not need information about the entire genome (which is around 2 metres long for a single human cell), but about its most informative part – genes. Gene sections are identified by searching for similarities between sequence fragments and known genes, or by detecting consistent patterns of the nucleotide sequence. This process is carried out using predictive algorithms.

Locating gene sections is no easy task, especially in eukaryotic organisms, which includes almost all widely known types of organism, except for bacteria. This is due to the fact that in these cells, the transfer of genetic information is complicated by “gaps” in the coding regions (introns) and because there are no definite indicators to determine whether a region is a coding region or not.

Diagram showing the transmission of hereditary information in a cell
Diagram showing the transmission of hereditary information in a cell. Credit: dnkworld.ru/transkripciya-i-translyaciya-dnk

The algorithm proposed by the scientists determines which regions in the DNA are genes and which are not. The scientists used a Markov chain, which is a sequence of random events, the future of which is dependent on past events. The states of the chain in this case are either nucleotides or nucleotide words (k-mers). The algorithm determines the most probable division of a genome into coding and noncoding regions, classifying the genomic fragments in the best possible way according to their ability to encode proteins or RNA. Experimental data obtained from RNA give additional useful information which can be used to train the model used in the algorithm. Certain gene prediction programs can use this data to improve the accuracy of finding genes. However, these algorithms require type-specific training of the model. For the AUGUSTUS software program, for example, which has a high level of accuracy, a training set of genes is needed. This set can be obtained using another program – GeneMark-ET – which is a self-training algorithm. These two algorithms were combined in the BRAKER1 algorithm, which was proposed jointly by the developers of AUGUSTUS and GeneMark-ET.

BRAKER1 has demonstrated a high level of efficiency. The developed program has already been downloaded by more than 1500 different centres and laboratories. Tests of the algorithm have shown that it is considerably more accurate than other similar algorithms. The example running time of BRAKER1 on a single processor is ∼17.5 hours for training and the prediction of genes in a genome with a length of 120 megabases. This is a good result, considering that this time may be significantly reduced by using parallel processors, and this means that in the future, the algorithm might function even faster and generally more efficiently.

Tools such as these solve a variety of problems. Accurately annotating genes in a genome is extremely important – an example of this is the global 1000 Genomes Project, the initial results of which have already been published. Launched in 2008, the project involves researchers from 75 different laboratories and companies. Sequences of rare gene variants and gene substitutions were discovered, some of which can cause disease. When diagnosing genetic diseases, it is very important to know which substitutions in gene sections cause the disease to develop. The project mapped genomes of different people , noting their coding sections, and rare nucleotide substitutions were identified. In the future, this will help doctors to diagnose complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

BRAKER1 enables scientists to work effectively with the genomes of new organisms, speeding up the process of annotating genomes and acquiring essential knowledge about life sciences.

 Explore further: Novel algorithm better assembles DNA sequences and detects genetic variation

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-01-scientists-algorithm-dna-faster-accurately.html#jCp

No One testing Company Can Provide Best Matches

No One testing Company Can Provide Best Matches

Nobody can predict which database is going to have your best matches because it is somewhat a matter of chance of who tests where. Not all of your relatives or potential relatives are going to test at the same company. Also, the algorithms (mathematical formula) is not the same for each testing company.

The big 3 companies at the moment are Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and FTDNA. In Europe, it is GPS and Living DNA. You can test with the later if you have European roots.

I would highly recommend uploading your data to the free site www.gedmatch.com which acts as a central site for intercompany compares. Since it is on a volunteer basis, it only has some of the results from each company, but it does tend to attract the most interested researchers, and therefore should have a good response rate if you attempt contact. You can upgrade to Tier 1 for advanced data manipulations for $10.00 per month.

Once you get uploaded, try the one-to-many lookup. You can see the original source of a contributor by the first letter of his kit code. (A=ancestry, M=23andme, T=FTDNA).

The Children of Adam – National Geographics

 

 

In the name of God, “The Most Gracious”, The Dispenser of Grace”

In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, “the Lord, The Almighty, the Creator, the Maker, the Godhead

Jehovah, Yahweh, Catholic, Jew, Baptist, Methodist, Buddist and other religious groups

God is the Ruler of the Universe and creator of all life which began in Africa and spread around the world. God makes no distinction of religion, color, sexual orientation. He only and simply stated follow my teaching and I give you free will to choose me your Father or Satan.

This is a fact that lies within all of us in a special place in our DNA.

African is the beginning and the end, take your place with God.

When reviewing material for this article, I found so much hate and rejection of the scientifically validated facts. Challenges based on religious preferences without an open mind or understanding or wanting to seek validation. This is the position of some of the world today but it is changing. We are one and you are his people.

Coming soon, DNA spirituality, health, disease, relationships and mental health. I wrote a blog that came to my mind while flying to DC-Bal. So for five hours, I wrote the blog while deep in thought and prayer. It has nothing to do with Trump tweet today regarding North Korea.

I met a man in the Dollar Store today and I turn to him and I said I know you some how. He said to me I have been waiting for you. We talked a little about our father our God. He wrote down a book he wanted me to read, and we continue a discussion about our connection. Finally, he said we shall meet again and other will be coming to give you greetings. I asked his name and he just smiled. He said I know your name. As he said to me, “there is no burden too heavy or hard to that you can not bear the burden if you believe in God. This is the third experience since my transition and return to this life.

May our God bless you all and keep you safe.

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