I read This article four times to get a feeling for the author and the story. I realized I had transcended home to Igbo land.
Resource: Access August 9, 2017 – https://www.dnatestedafricans.org/single-post/2017/06/18/The-Invisible-Artifact-Something-Amazing-Happened
The Invisible Artifact ~ A Journey From Igboland to South Carolina
April 16, 2017
A Dibia (native healer) in Igboland was awakened from a very disturbing dream. The gods were giving him a message. He went to the Eze (king) and informed him. The Eze told him to go and do what he was directed. He returned to the shrine after gathering wood from the sacred Iroko tree. He personally carved a mysterious artifact, creating a secret compartment at the bottom where he placed inside, a kola nut, alligator pepper , and a message.
Meanwhile, the Eze summonsed the town crier to have every elder male and elder female of each family to meet him at his palace immediately. They each arrived wondering why they were assembled at such a later hour. The Dibia returned with the artifact and explained that the gods told him of an impending danger.
He said that a tomb will float on the great water, bringing a choking white fog.
The fog would engulf many of the village people but some will survive. He advised
that when this horrible white smoke came, to run to a place near the evil forest
where they would be invisible to the naked eye. A great fear came over the
villagers because no one went near the evil forest unless they were cast out of the
village. It was an abomination.
The elders all began to speak at the same time.
The clanking sound of the Dibia’s staff striking the ground, caused a silence to
roll across the tongues of each person there. His eyes turned a hazy white as he
went into a trance. He said, “Out of this abomination, our people will return”. He
directed each elder to come to the artifact. He recited an incantation and told
each elder to touch a different area of it. When they touched it, that area displayed
a mystical glowing symbol that was not carved into the artifact.
It sealed their DNA into the symbols.
The Dibia explained that the mystical symbols would only glow when a descendant of the elder that touched it was near.
When the last elder touched the artifact, a second seal was placed upon it and another artifact, an exact duplicate appeared out of a puff of red smoke. They were all amazed. He kept the second artifact with him. It could only be passed from Dibia to his successor, until the time of reckoning.
The Dibia called the strongest man in the group. His name was Obinna (Obi). He was noticeable because of the bright spiritual glow about him that only he could see.
The guards were given instructions to hold him, regardless to what happened
next. They did. The Dibia placed a green herb in his mouth and pushed the
artifact into his chest. It started to burn his skin as he screamed in uncontrollable
pain. His skin divided and the artifact went inside of him. Then the pain was
gone as if nothing happened. Eze assigned him warriors to guard him day and
night. They were all sworn to secrecy to NEVER reveal what took place that night.
About 7 years later, the dreaded tomb came floating on the great water. The white
fog rolled all around it. Many were taken away in the fog while some made it
safely to the meeting place. A mother screamed in the darkness. She was unable
to find her son Obi. He was the one that the Dibia chose to hold the sacred
artifact inside of him.
Three Months on the Great Wata
The white fog took him and many others to a foreign land. Obinna (Obi) and those that
were with him in that dreadful tomb were placed on a block and sold into slavery.
Obi lived to be 97 years old. He had many children and grandchildren. They called him Papa Obi. They all remembered the stories he told of how he was brought to this place when the white fog came to his homeland. He told them of how he found that some of his age mates decided that they would rather drown themselves than to be enslaved. He even tried himself but the water would not take him. The artifact inside of him caused the water to push him back to the
surface and back away.
His children loved his stories and decided to research this place that seemed almost mythical. They found that it is now called Nigeria. Some call it Naija. He always said he could still hear his mother’s voice from back home, guiding him, even until the day he died. His body was laid to rest in a beautiful wooden coffin at the foot of a huge tree, in a place now called South Carolina. His tombstone read ” Here lies Obinna, also known as Papa Obi, born 1724 in Nigeria; died 1821 in SC”.
Each year this amazing tree grows closer to its roots and has several knots and bends in it. There is no other tree like it in the whole land. Some folks call it an angel oak tree. Others call it a Spirit tree. There has always been something different about that tree.
275 years later, in Nigeria….2016
A Dibia is awakened from a dream. He performed an incantation and retrieved
the artifact. He took it to the Eze and explained its history. The elders of each
family were called to witness the extraction of the message and the Kola nut. The
message read ““Out of this Obama Nation, our people will return. Obi is Ibo, SC”.
It was a peculiar message.
Several scholars, at the University, were called to try to decipher its meaning. It
was baffling. A Nigerian private investigator, named Emeka, was also contacted.
He was preferred because he was aware of the modern day technology as well as
the ancient customs of his people.
When Emeka was taken to see the artifact, one of the symbols glowed. It was a
tree with the letters SC at the bottom of the tree. He found that Obinna and he
shared the same ancestor. They were family! This investigation became a
personal journey. His family was taken by the white fog. Many questions
consumed him. Where are they now? What happened to them? Emeka had to
His Journey to South Carolina began …
Read more by clicking on the link: https://www.dnatestedafricans.org/single-post/2017/06/18/The-Invisible-Artifact-Something-Amazing-Happened
Autosomal DNA Segment Analyzer (ADSA)
GEDMATCH Quick Start Guide
ICW means In-Common-With were ever used
To use GEDMATCH with ADSA you must be a Tier 1 GEDMATCH member. That means you must have, at some time, donated at least $10 to GEDMATCH. The GEDMATCH upload process for DNAgedcom.com depends on two Tier 1 tools: Matching Segment Search and Triangulation which you cannot access unless you are a Tier 1 member. And, of course, you must have loaded your raw data to GEDMATCH previously so that it has been tokenized and batch processing is completed.
Some other things to be aware of:
Certain fields that are available for Family Tree DNA kits are not presently available for GEDMATCH. These include:
Total Shared cM
Longest Block cM
So, this means that using these for sorting, selection, highlighting or display purposes may not have the results you wanted because these fields are empty in a GEDMATCH kit.
To manage processing load on GEDMATCH’s servers, only the In-Common-With (ICW) indicators for your top 400 matches are provided by GEDMATCH, so you will only have ICW bricks in the ADSA report for your longer segments. You can manually determine ICWs for other matches by doing a one-to-many report for one of your matches and comparing their list of matches to yours.
Generally, there are a lot more segments in a GEDMATCH ADSA report than for Family Tree DNA. This tends to slow down the responsiveness of your browser when viewing the ADSA report. You may wish to increase the minimum segment size in ADSA to 10 cM(Centimorgans)
The GEDMATCH tools that are used to gather the data for DNAgedcom exclude very close relatives (eg. siblings, parents, children) to improve processing performance, so you will not see them as matches on your ADSA report for GEDMATCH kits.
The X chromosome matches are not presently included in GEDMATCH kits.
To get started, follow these steps.
If you haven’t already done so, go to www.DNAgedcom.com and click on “Register”:
Register for a free account at DNAgedcom.com:
Logon to DNAgedcom.com with your new username and password:
Prepare to upload your GEDMATCH data to DNAgedcom.com:
You will see a screen with a large, square text input box. Do not enter anything here yet.
Leaving the window above open, create a new browser window or tab and go to the www.gedmatch.com and
. Click on “Matching Segment Search” in the Tier 1 tools menu near the bottom of the screen:
Enter your kit number and click “No” on the graphic bar (very important!) and click “Submit”:
Now wait for the report to finish – it will probably take a few minutes. When it is complete it will look something like this:
Select everything on the screen and copy it to the clipboard. In
you can do this using
followed by ctrl-c. On a
you can use command-a and command-c. You may have to wait a little while for the copy to complete. There is a lot of data there to copy. (If you don’t wait long enough, when you paste the information into DNAgedcom you won’t get what you copied. You may see a
or spinning beach-ball while the copying is going on.
the copy process doesn’t take more than a minute or two.)
Go to the browser window you have open to DNAgedcom.com. Click
the square box and paste what you copied into it. On
you can use Ctrl-v or you can use command-v on a Mac.You should see a portion of what you copied like this:
Click the “Load” button. The load should complete in a few seconds.
Click the Clear button to erase the text-input box again and return to your GEDMATCH browser window. Return to the main GEDMATCH menu again.
Now click on the Triangulation tool.
Enter your GEDMATCH kit number and select the middle radio button (very important!) and click on the “Triangulate” button:
Wait for the report to complete. The Triangulation report may take longer than the Matching Segment Report depending on how many In-Common-With matches you have and the current load on GEDMATCH’s servers. When it finishes there will be 4 rows of asterisks on the screen and the screen will look something like this:
Once again, select the entire page (ctrl-a or command-a) and copy it to the clipboard (ctrl-c or command-c). Wait for the copy to complete. Then switch back to your DNAgedcom browser window.
Make sure the text-input box in DNAgedcom is empty (use the Clear button if you need to) and then paste the Triangulation report into the box with ctrl-v or command-v. Then click on the Load button.
When the Load process completes the screen will refresh. You can now go to ADSA by selecting the Autosomal Tools menu and the Autosomal DNA Segment Analyzer option on that menu. Or you can go to this link: http://www.dnagedcom.com/adsa. You will see a screen like this:
Select your kit from the drop-down menu. GEDMATCH kits will start with a letter (A=Ancestry, F=FTDNA, M=23andMe etc.):
Click GET REPORT
If you have Ashkenazi ancestry or are part of an endogamous (interrelated) group you may not be able to generate a report with the default input parameters. Please consult the Tips for People with Ashkenazi Ancestry page before clicking GET REPORT.
For more information about this process, how to interpret your results, or troubleshooting, read the full ADSA manual.
The environment, stress, diet, what you eat and drink can have an impact on your epigenetics. It influences your DNA. Are you taking care of you epigenome?
Very important reading that can help you and future generations of you family.
Reprinted from the International Society of Genetic Genealogy August 2, 2017. No adjustment was made to this article and is the ISOGG position.
In genetic genealogy, a centiMorgan (cM) or map unit (m.u.) is a unit of recombinant frequency which is used to measure genetic distance. It is often used to imply distance along a chromosome, and takes into account how often recombination occurs in a region. A region with few cMs undergoes relatively less recombination. The number of base pairs to which it corresponds varies widely across the genome (different regions of a chromosome have different propensities towards crossover). One centiMorgan corresponds to about 1 million base pairs in humans on average. The centiMorgan is equal to a 1% chance that a marker at one genetic locus on a chromosome will be separated from a marker at a second locus due to crossing over in a single generation.
The genetic genealogy testing companies 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and MyHeritage DNA use centiMorgans to denote the size of matching DNA segments in autosomal DNA tests. Segments which share a large number of centiMorgans in common are more likely to be of significance and to indicate a common ancestor within a genealogical timeframe.
The centiMorgan was named in honor of geneticist Thomas Hunt Morgan by his student Alfred Henry Sturtevant. Note that the parent unit of the centiMorgan, the Morgan, is rarely used today.
centiMorgans vs megabases
CentiMorgans are interpolated numbers that take into consideration each area of a chromosome and its propensity to recombine. This means if two cousins share 40 cM on chromosome 1, and two different cousins share 40 cM on chromosome 5, they both can be predicted to share a certain degree of relationship statistically. Megabases vary slightly in different locations so that in the same scenario, if both sets shared 40 Mb pairs, it would be more difficult to ensure they are of a similar degree of relation without further accounting for location, chromosome and other factors.
Ann Turner provides a useful explanation: “I think of the cM as being a unit of ‘effective’ distance. As an analogy, a mile is a fixed quantity (5280 feet), and so are megabases. But the probability that a person can walk a mile in 20 minutes is more fluid. If the terrain is very rough, the “effective” distance of a literal mile might be more like two miles if you’re trying to arrive at a certain time. We’re more interested in the probability that a segment will be passed on intact than the size of the segment in Mb”.
As the cM is an empirical measure, based on recombination events in a particular dataset of parents and offspring, it can vary somewhat from study to study. This set of maps for each chromosome shows that the general shape of the centiMorgan vs megabase curve is similar for two datasets, but the absolute values are not quite the same:
cm values per chromosome
The following table compares cM values per chromosome at Family Tree DNA, GEDmatch, and 23andMe. AncestryDNA uses 3475 as the total cM according to the help screen for confidence level in a DNA match. This presumably excludes the X chromosome.
Probability of crossover
The following chart shows the estimated probability that a segment will be affected by a crossover. The chart does not take into account some variables such as inversions and different recombination rates for males and females.
Converting centiMorgans into percentages
The way the calculation works is that your total genome in cMs with the Family Finder test is 6770 cM. A half-identical match (such as a parent/child) is 3385 cM. This number has to be doubled to represent both the maternal and paternal sides giving a total of 6770 cM. Matt Dexter explains: “The reason the number is not 6770 or 6800, but rather 68, is that it saves an additional step doing the math to convert an answer to percent. For example, 3385 / 6770 = .5 then as a second step, .5 times 100 = 50%. Using 68 to start with saves the added math step. So (3385 / 6800) * 100 is the same thing as 3385 / 68, which results in = 50%.”
Human reference genome
The centiMorgan totals per chromosome are based on the Human Reference Genome. 23andMe and Ancestry DNA use Build 37. Family Tree DNA use Build 37 for matching but Build 36 for segment boundaries in the Chromosome Browser. Raw data files are provided in both formats. Build 37 filled in quite a few gaps, and the number of base pairs in each of the chromosomes was longer in Build 37 as compared to Build 36. Consequently the cM totals per chromosome are lower for Family Finder than they are for 23andMe. GedMatch use Build 36, and convert AncestryDNA and 23andMe data from Build 37 to Build 36 for backward compatibility.
The latest version of the Human Reference Genome, Build 38, was released in December 2013. However, none of the companies have as yet adopted Build 38 and there is a “gentleman’s agreement” in place to stick with Build 37 for the present time.
- Definition of centiMorgan from the FTDNA glossary
- How do you determine the centiMorgan value for a DNA segment FTDNA Learning Center article
- Definition of centiMorgan from the National Human Genome Research Institute
- Lobo I and Shaw K (2008). Thomas Hunt Morgan, genetic recombination and gene mapping . Nature Education 1(1):205.
- Genome Reference Consortium
- Introducing the New Human Genome Assembly: GRCh38. NCBI Insights, 24 December 2013
- Genome Reference Blog
- Look up tables for Build 36
- Look up tables for Build 37 (zip file)
- Rutgers Map Interpolator This resource allows you to determine cM-scale linkage-based map positions for any marker, given only its physical position.
Here is a 3-step process for Triangulation: Collect, Arrange, Compare/Group.
- Collect all the Match-segments you can. I recommend testing at all three companies (23andMe, FTDNA, and AncestryDNA), and using GEDmatch. But, wherever you test, get all of your segments into a spreadsheet. If you are using more than one company, you need to download, and then arrange, the data in the same format as your spreadsheet. Downloading/arranging is best when starting a new spreadsheet. Downloading avoids typing errors, but direct typing is sometimes easier for updates. I recommend deleting all segments under 7cM – most of them will be IBC/IBS (false segments) anyway, and even the ones which may be IBD are very difficult to confirm as such. You are much better off doing as much Triangulation as you can with segments over 7cM (or use a 10cM threshold if you wish), and then adding smaller segments back in later, if you want to analyze them. NB: Some of your closer Matches will share multiple segments with you – each segment must be entered as a separate row in your spreadsheet. The minimum requirement for a Triangulation with a spreadsheet includes columns for MatchName, Chromosome, SegmentStartLocation, SengmentEndLocation, cMs and TG. Most of us also have columns for SNPs, company, testee, TG, and any other information of interest to you. Perhaps I need a separate blog post about spreadsheets… ;>j
- Arrange the segments by sorting the entire spreadsheet (Cntr-A) by Chromosome and Segment StartLocation. This is one sort with two levels – the Chromosome column is the first level. This puts all of your segments in order – from the first one on Chromosome 1 to the last one on Chromosome 23 (for sorting purposes I recommend changing Chromosome X to 23 or 23X so it will sort after 22). This serves the purpose of putting overlapping segments close to each other in the spreadsheet where they are easy to compare.
- Compare/Group overlapping segments. All of these segments are shared segments with you. So with segments that overlap each other, you want to know if they match each other at this location. If so this is Triangulation. This comparison is done a little differently at each company, but the goal is the same: two segments either match each other, or they don’t (or there isn’t enough overlapping segment information to determine a match). All the Matches who match each other will form a Triangulated Group, on one chromosome – call this TG A (or any other name you want). Go through the same process with the segments who didn’t match TG A. They will often match each other and will form a second, overlapping TG, on the other chromosome – call this TG B. [Remember you have two of each numbered chromosome.] So to review, and put it all a different way: All of your segments (every row of your spreadsheet) will go into one of 4 categories:
- – TG A [the first one with segments which match each other]
- – TG B [the other, overlapping, one with segments which match each other]
- – IBC/IBS [the segments don’t match either TG A or TG B]
- – Undetermined [there are not enough segments to form both TG A and TG B and/or there isn’t enough overlapping data to determine a match.]
- NB: None of the segments in TG A should match any of the segments in TG B.
- At GEDmatch – the comparisons are easy. Just compare two kit numbers using the one-to-one utility to see if they match each other on the appropriate segment. The ones that do are Triangulated. You may also use the Tier1 Triangulation utility or the Segment utility. I prefer using the one-to-one utility and Chrome.
- At 23andMe you have several different utilities:
- – Family Inheritance: Advanced lets you compare up to 5 Matches at a time. You may also request a spreadsheet of all your shared segments; sort that by chromosome and SegmentStart, and check to see if two of your Matches match each other. The ones that do are Triangulated.
- – Countries of Ancestry: Sort a Match’s spreadsheet by chromosome and SegmentStart, search for your own name, and highlight the overlapping segments. The Matches on this highlighted list who are also on overlapping segments in your spreadsheet are Triangulated (the CoA spreadsheet confirms the match between two of your Matches)
- At FTDNA it’s a little trickier, because they don’t have a utility to compare two of your Matches. So the most positive method is to contact the Matches and ask them to confirm if they match your overlapping Matches, or not. The ones that do are Triangulated. An almost-as-good alternative is to use the InCommonWith utility. Look for the 2-squigley-arrows icon next to a Match’s name, click that, and select In Common With to get a list of your Matches who also match the Match you started with. Compare that list of Matches with the list of list of Matches with overlapping segments in your spreadsheet. Matches on both lists are considered to be Triangulated. Although this is not a foolproof method, it works most of the time. And if you find three or four ICW Matches in the same TG, the odds are much closer to 100%. Remember, every segment in your spreadsheet must go in one TG or the other, or be IBC/IBS, or be undetermined. If a particular Match, in one TG, is critical to your analysis, then try hard to confirm the Triangulation by contacting the Matches.
- AncestryDNA has no DNA analysis utilities. You need to convince your Matches to upload their raw data to GEDmatch (for free) or FTDNA (for a fee), and see the paragraphs above.
Comments to improve this blog post are welcomed.
This course as the first one “Genetic Genealogy For Beginners” is an expansion and goes a little more deeper into the DNA with some additional learning tools. In these lessons rather than chapter we will use Genetic Genealogy, Molecular Genealogy (the field of biology that studies the structure and function at the molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics. The study of chromosomes and genes expression of an organism.) Sounds intimidating but it will be broken into manageable understandable lessons. There is a test after each lessons to help you gain a solid background before moving to Intermediate and Advance Genetic Genealogy. This will be a four week course and starts May 1 – May 26 2017.
mark you calendar for this course.