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Cousin Calculator

This question of relationships gets asked a lot by readers. So the charts and calculator. Have fun and remember if you have no tree but you are looking at your DNA it most likely will not help you much.

PrenticeNet Cousin Calculator

Cousin Terms and Definitions

First Cousin 
Your first cousin is a child of your aunt or uncle. You share one set of grandparents with your first cousin, but you do not have the same parents.

Second Cousin 
Your second cousin is the grandchild of your great-aunt or great-uncle. You share one set of great-grandparents with your second cousin, but you do not have the same grandparents.

Third, Fourth, and Fifth Cousins 
Your third cousin is the great-grandchild of your great-great-aunt or great-great-uncle. You share a set of great-great-grandparents with your third cousin, but do not have the same great-grandparents. Fourth cousins have one set of great-great-great-grandparents, but not the same great-great-grandparents. And so on.

Double Cousins
If two siblings in one family marry two siblings from another family and each couple has a child, the children are double first cousins. The word double in addition to the first cousin term is because they share the same four grandparents. Regular first cousins share only one set of common grandparents, while double first cousins share both sets of grandparents plus all lineal and collateral relatives.

Removed
The relationships of cousins of different generations are explained by using the word “removed”. Cousins who are “once removed” have a one-generation difference. For example, the first cousin of your father is your first cousin, once removed. In that case, your father’s first cousin is one generation younger than your grandparents and you are two generations younger than your grandparents. This one-generation difference is explained by saying that you are cousins “once removed.”. Removed cousin relationships is never measured by age, but only by generation differences.

Twice removed means that there is a two-generation difference between cousins. If you are two generations younger than the first cousin of your grandparent, then the relationship between you and your grandparent’s first cousin are first cousins, twice removed.

Cousin relationships can be any combination of first, second, third and so on, with once removed, twice removed, and so on. A genealogy program will calculate exact family relationships in your family tree for both blood relatives and relatives by marriage.

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Queen Charlotte of the UK

Queen Charlotte
The Royal Family

With features as conspicuously Negroid as they were reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder that the black community, both in the U.S. and throughout the British Commonwealth, have rallied around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations. They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes.

Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820), was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa, a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House. The riddle of Queen Charlotte’s African ancestry was solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings. Two art historians had suggested that the black magi must have been portraits of actual contemporary people (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial bone structure of quadroons or octoroons which these figures invariably represented) Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that the models for the black magi were, in all probability, members of the Portuguese de Sousa family. (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke, Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.)

Six different lines can be traced from English Queen Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen’s unmistakable African appearance.

Queen Charlotte’s Portrait:
The Royal FamilyThe Negroid characteristics of the Queen’s portraits certainly had political significance since artists of that period were expected to play down, soften or even obliterate undesirable features in a subjects’s face. Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day. He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire. It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen, he was already , by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield.

Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness and political activism at that level of English society, it would be surprising if the Queen’s negroid physiogomy was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.

The Royal FamilyLord Mansfield’s black grand niece, for example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject of at least two formal full sized portraits. Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted the celebrated friendship between herself and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray, another member of the Mansfield family. One of the artists was none other than Zoffany, the court painter to the royal family, for whom the Queen had sat on a number of occasions.

It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect that Queen Charlotte’s coronation picture, copies of which were sent out to the colonies, signified a specific stance on slavery held, at least, by that circle of the English intelligencia to which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

  • MORE ON QUEEN CHARLOTTE
  • Revealed: the Queen’s black ancestors
    The Times of London reports that a Portuguese descendent of Queen Charlotte confirmed Valdes’ research into her heritage. (June 6, 1999)
  • Was this Britain’s first black queen?
    “The suggestion that Queen Charlotte was black implies that her granddaughter (Queen Victoria) and her great-great-great-great-granddaughter (Queen Elizabeth II) had African forebears. Perhaps, instead of just being a boring bunch of semi-inbred white stiffs, our royal family becomes much more interesting.” (The Guardian, March 12, 2009)

For the initial work into Queen Charlotte’s genealogy, a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of McGill University. It was the director of the Burney Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen), Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly, the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her contemporaries regarding her negroid features. Because of its “scientific” source, the most valuable of Dr. Hedley’s references would, probably, be the one published in the autobiography of the Queen’s personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he described her as having “…a true mulatto face.”

Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her African appearance, however, can be found in the poem penned to her on the occasion of her wedding to George III and the Coronation celebration that immediately followed.

Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
She still preserves that title in her face.
Tho’ shone their triumphs o’er Numidia’s plain,
And and Alusian fields their name retain;
They but subdued the southern world with arms,
She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
O! born for rule, – to whose victorious brow
The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation, referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines in an apologia it published defending her position as head of the Commonwealth.

More about Research into the Black Magi:
In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the black de Sousas had been utilized as both religious and political propaganda to support Portugal’s expansion into Africa. In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn from a vocabulary of blackness which, probably due to the Reformation and the Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten. There was a wealth of positive symbolism that had been attributed to the black African figure during the Middle Ages. Incredible as it would seem to us today, such images had been used to represent not only Our Lady – evidence of which can be found in the cult of the Black Madonna that once proliferated in Europe – but in heraldic traditions, the Saviour and God the Father, Himself.


Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora.

War of 1812 Pension Files

How to Use War of 1812 Pension Files

War of 1812 summary of pension filesDo you have an ancestor who participated in the War of 1812? If so, the War of 1812 pension files may hold a treasure trove of genealogical information for you. These records have previously been difficult to access until, led by the Federation of Genealogical Societies and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the genealogical community began digitizing them in 2015 to make them available for the bicentennial of this important war.

Finding family information in war files may seem counterintuitive, but records of these files are filled with important details about soldiers, their families, and even extended families. Learn more about what information these records contain and how you can access them to find your ancestors.

What are pension files?

Citizens who joined the militia and served in the army or navy during the War of 1812 were eligible for pensions. Throughout the 1800s, nearly 100,000 applications were submitted. Some were approved, some not, but files for both were preserved.

How to find and use pension records in family history work.

To qualify for these pensions, applicants were required to provide the government with stringent proofs of eligibility, so the files may include original records sent in by the applicants. They may include pages torn from family Bibles, marriage certificates, photographs, military records, and more. Such records may provide proof of such facts as a wife’s maiden name, marriage places and dates, names of children, bounty land awarded, military service details, names of parents, death dates and places, and physical descriptions of the veteran.

Who could apply for a pension?

Who fought in the War of 1812 and their pensions.Before 1871, veterans had to prove that war injuries prevented them from earning a living in order to receive a pension. If the veteran was deceased, his widow could apply provided she had married the veteran before 1815, the year the war ended. Through the years, stipulations for pension eligibility were relaxed, and more families applied. After 1871, all veterans who served at least 60 days, or their widows, could apply. In 1878, benefits were extended to veterans, widows, and their children, provided the soldier served at least 14 days. Pension applications could also include men who served in the war effort in capacities other than as soldiers.

Some soldiers who were not eligible for pensions still qualified for bounty lands. What is found in the Fold3 1812 folders may differ from that available on the online Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Bounty Land patents. The procedure to get a land patent included an application for bounty land, a warrant for the land, and a land patent. The patents are digitized on the BLM site, but the warrants are not.

Whether or not your ancestor served in the war, the information may still be in these records. Check the records on Fold3.com. Your ancestor may be listed on affidavits as witnesses to marriages and other events of friends and family who were involved in the war.

Where are pension records available?

Start by searching for an ancestor in the FamilySearch War of 1812 index, but don’t stop there. Indexes provide only limited information, could include transcription errors, and aren’t necessarily complete.

Digitized records in the pension files are actual copies of proof documents and may contain much more information than is on the indexes. Thus far, files for surnames A through M have been digitized and are available free online at Fold3.com. The undigitized original files are also available to search at the National Archives in Washington D.C.

Keep an eye on your FamilySearch record hints as well. If FamilySearch finds one of your ancestors in the War of 1812 Pension File records, they’ll give you a record hint on your Family Tree. You can review these hints to view the record and make sure it applies to your ancestor.

 

 

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Southern States Online Free Historical Newspapers

In Case You Missed It – Southern States’ Online Historical Newspapers:

638 new and updated Free Links have just been added to the Southern States’ free newspaper link lists (now totals 7,994 titles for all 15 states). Check out all the new links!

We have added: http://www.theancestorhunt.com/blog/alabama-online-historical-newspapers-summary

The source of information is The Ancestor Hunt.com blog access August 26, 2018

Alabama – http://bit.ly/2I1ONcJ
Arkansas – http://bit.ly/2oQt688
Florida – http://bit.ly/2udVVkb
Georgia – http://bit.ly/2F23DTE
Kentucky – http://bit.ly/2INljk1
Louisiana – http://bit.ly/2Dwp4X3
Mississippi – http://bit.ly/2CNhQhi
Missouri – http://bit.ly/2oIdpjl
North Carolina – http://bit.ly/2oJGriS
Oklahoma – http://bit.ly/2u8ACAm
South Carolina – http://bit.ly/2Dv1oT5
Tennessee – http://bit.ly/2CJCzm8
Texas – http://bit.ly/2DScj9u
Virginia – http://bit.ly/2EOzBTh
West Virginia – http://bit.ly/2CJB3A7

http://www.theancestorhunt.com/blog/alabama-online-historical-newspapers-summary#.W4My65NKiCQ

Picture

Alabama is one of the states that does not have a central online repository for searching historical newspapers. Several states use the Library of Congress Chronicling America site as their main central online site for searching old newspapers. Alabama does have a few online newspapers available on that site. Alabama currently has its online availability from different websites. Many are free and some require a subscription. Below is a list of where the titles are stored and the link so that you can access them.

There are over 2.000 newspapers that have been published in the Yellowhammer State. But there are quite a few that are indeed available. So go for it – find your Alabama ancestors and all the interesting articles that capture the stories of their lives.Please note that I have not always entered the dates that are included in the collections, as I suspect they will change as more items are digitized. Also I suspect that some of these links may change over time – so if there is a dead link – please use your favorite search engine to find their new location. (Updated August, 2018; recently added links are in BOLD)

Free Sites:

Statewide Collections:

Chronicling America – Alabama Newspapers 

Google News Archive

Alabama Civil War Newspapers 1861-65

  • Advertiser and Register
  • Advocate and American
  • Alabama Beacon
  • Alabama State SentinelY
  • Army Argus and Crisis
  • Athens Post
  • Autauga Citizen
  • Bangor Broad Axe
  • Birmingham Iron Age
  • Bluff City Times
  • Butler News
  • Cahaba Gazette
  • Chambers Tribune
  • Christian Herald
  • Clarke County Democrat
  • Clayton Banner
  • Confederate States
  • Daily Confederation
  • Daily Huntsville Confederate
  • Daily Mercury
  • Daily Montgomery Ledger
  • Daily Selma Times
  • Daily State Sentinel
  • Democrat
  • Democratic Watchtower
  • Eufala Weekly News
  • Eufala Weekly Times
  • Eufaula Express
  • Florence Gazette
  • Greenville Advocate
  • Huntsville Confederate
  • Huntsville Weekly Democrat
  • Huntsville Weekly Independent
  • Independent American
  • Independent Monitor
  • Independent Observer
  • Jacksonville Republican
  • Livingston Journal
  • Marion Commonwealth
  • Mobile Advertiser and Register
  • Mobile Daily Advertiser and Register
  • Mobile Daily News
  • Mobile Daily Tribune
  • Mobile Evening News
  • Mobile Evening Telegraph
  • Mobile Morning News
  • Mobile Register and Advertiser
  • Mobile Weekly Advertiser
  • Mobile Weekly Register
  • Montgomery Daily Advertiser
  • Montgomery Daily Mail
  • Montgomery Daily Post
  • Montgomery Weekly Advertiser
  • Montgomery Weekly Mail
  • Montgomery Weekly Post
  • Moulton Advertiser
  • North Alabamian
  • Observer
  • Opelika Observer
  • Opelika Weekly Times
  • Our Mountain Home
  • Pickens American
  • Russell Register
  • Selma Daily Reporter
  • Selma Evening Reporter
  • Selma Morning Dispatch
  • Selma Morning Reporter
  • Selma Weekly Reporter
  • Shelby Guide
  • Shelby Sentinel
  • South Western Baptist
  • Southern Advertiser
  • Southern Advocate
  • Southern Argus
  • Southern Champion
  • Southern Home Journal
  • Southern Messenger
  • Southern Plantation
  • Southern Republic
  • Southern Signal
  • Southern Statesman
  • Southern Watchman
  • Spectator
  • Spirit of the South
  • St. Clair Diamond
  • State Rights Advocate
  • The Eutaw Whig and Observer
  • The Independent
  • The Weekly Issue
  • Troy Messenger
  • Tuscaloosa Observer
  • Tusekegee Weekly News
  • Union Springs Herald
  • Union Springs Herald and Times
  • Union Springs Times
  • United South
  • Universalist Herald
  • Weekly Advertiser
  • Weekly Advertiser and Register
  • Weekly Montgomery Confederation
  • West Alabamian
  • Wetumpka Spectator
  • Wilcox News and Pacificator

County and Library Collections:

Birmingham Public Library Newspapers

Birmingham Public Library Newspaper Clippings

Huntsville–Madison County Newspaper Index 

Lamar County Newspapers

Marion County Newspapers

Montevallo Collection

Student Collections:

Alabama State University – Montgomery

Auburn University – Auburn

Auburn University – Montgomery

Jacksonville State University – Jacksonville

Montevallo High School – Montevallo

Spring Hill College – Mobile

Troy University – Troy

University of Alabama – Birmingham

University of Alabama – Tuscaloosa

University of Montevallo – Montevallo

University of North Alabama – Florence

University of South Alabama – Mobile

University of West Alabama – Montgomery

Miscellaneous Collections:

Old Fulton Postcards

Small Town Papers

Agriculture and Rural Life Newspapers

Southern School News Archive

The Olden Times – Alabama

Newspaper Abstracts – Alabama

For Obituary Indexes, transcriptions, and other death/obituary information from historic newspapers, please check out the Obituaries page.

Other Free Sites:

Birmingham

Fort Payne

Jacksonville

Montgomery

Rainsville

Dreams Of Africa In Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda And The Story Of The Last African

This book is a must-read for Genealogist

Dreams of African in Alabama

https://www.amazon.com/Dreams-Africa-Alabama-Clotilda-Africans/dp/0195382935

In the summer of 1860, more than fifty years after the United States legally abolished the international slave trade, 110 men, women and children from Benin and Nigeria were brought ashore in Alabama under cover of night. They were the last recorded group of Africans deported to the United States as slaves. For additional reading please follow the link above to purchase the book.

Thank you to our readers who asked for more information. You will find many resources in the book.

Written by Sylvianne A Dioup

New Post on American Ancestors Database News

We offer this news post from Amercian Ancestors to help you research your ancestors who may have been living in the New England States. This may help to bridge the gap between what we think we know and the unknown for us to discover. I have found relatives living in the New England States as Freeman and Slaves. We travel the trail where ever it leads us.

 

New post on American Ancestors Database News

11 new Norwich sketches in Early Vermont Settlers, 1700-1784

by Molly Rogers

Summer in Vermont

Today we’re announcing 11 new sketches in Early Vermont Settlers, 1700-1784.  We’ve also updated three older sketches.  This study project by Scott Andrew Bartley is a work in progress, focusing on head of families in pre-Revolutionary War Vermont.  So far he has focused on Windsor and Windham counties.  This addition (including the updates) adds 1,088 new records and 4,352 new names.  The new sketches are listed below:

Baldwin, Daniel (Norwich)
Burton, Jacob (Norwich)
Burton, Josiah (Norwich)
Carpenter, Simeon (Norwich)
Hatch, John (Norwich)
Hatch, Joseph (Norwich)
Hopson, John (Norwich)
Huntington, James (Norwich)
Murdock, Thomas (Norwich)
Sargent, John (Norwich)
Smith, Phillip (Norwich)

Three updated sketches:

Burton, Elisha (Norwich)
Neff, Thomas (Randolph)
Wright, Benjamin (Hartford)

Please note: This database is available to Individual-level and above NEHGS members only. Consider membership.

Molly Rogers | August 22, 2018 at 11:28 am | Categories: Uncategorized | URL: https://wp.me/p8jE0N-nC

Civil War Slave Compensation Claims

Civil War Slave Compensation Claims in Compiled Military Service Records of U.S. Colored Troops

During the Civil War, an act of Congress allowed loyal slave owners in border states (where slavery was still legal after the Emancipation Proclamation) whose slaves enlisted or were drafted into the U.S. military to file a claim against the Federal government for loss of the slave’s services.  Since each slave compensation claim was based on the service of a specific soldier, a copy of the claim’s paperwork was placed in that soldier’s compiled military service record. The regiments of U.S. Colored Troops that have a large number of these claims are the regiments formed in the border-states (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri) or in neighboring states.

This index includes troops who served the following regiments:

  • Artillery—1st, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 13th Heavy Artillery Regiments, U.S. Colored Troops
  • Cavalry—5th and 6th Cavalry Regiments, U.S. Colored Troops
  • Infantry—4th, 7th, 18th and 19th Infantry Regiments, U.S. Colored Troops

See Guide to Civil War Slave Compensation Claims in Compiled Military Service Records of U.S. Colored Troops for more information about these records.

For more information about specific records found in this index, please contact the History and Genealogy Department at genealogy@slcl.org.

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