|Ten Helpful Tools For Teaching DNA or understanding DNA|
Whether you are teaching genetics or learning genetics for the first, or the umpteenth time, our list of Ten Helpful Tools offers new ideas and techniques that will pep your understanding of DNA. Several image sources, interactive tools, and activities you will not want to miss!
When the DNA results are not what was expected… The question came in again this past week, as it has so many times in recent years. A genealogist had asked others in the family to test to further the genealogist’s own research. When the results came in, well, they…
We are one, aren’t we?
J.F.S. match to me, predictive relationship 2nd cousin and we share Great Grandparents
23andMe match 2nd cousin on 14 markers, we share 93 relatives together, haplogroup for me L2ala2 and for J.F.S. L2ale
Here is the response to my inquiry:
Good day, sir. There is no Saluda Slade, in this family tree. What i have discovered is the males and females have given birth to children without ever notifying their spouses. This occured from males and females. It appears females had cgildren without notifying their future spouse. It also appears males had children, though married, with other women, while married. So far, tge females did not produce progeny, while married, howebwr males, did. That explaines tge DNA segment matches of 3.8% and lower. I have been contacted by white families as well and are disghusted to know I am their NEICE, AUNT and 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th cousin and that i am lredominantky of SubSaharan descent. They were comoletwky unaware that their father, though married to thwir mothwr fathered a black child. THIS CONNECTION IS ON THE PATERNAL HAPLOTYPE AND THE MALE HAD SEX WITH AN UNKNOWN FEMALE AND PRODUCED A CHILD. When I shared your email with the remainder of my family, they prefer that they not open a can of worms. I shall comply with tge majority of this famiky and any i fidelities that resukted in offspring shall remain unknown. How does it go, till dwath do we part. Thank you for informing us, our paternal great- great -great-grandfather had a relationship he didnt want to disclose. He is dead. Been dead for 3 generations and he may not have know of the conception. Since he didnt know, and his son dindt know, and his grand son didny know and his great grand aon disnt know and his great, great, grrat grand son dinsy know, none kf yhis current family deaires to knkw what he did, before he married his wife. Sir, i shall reacy as my white 1sy cousin. Take this informayion with you, yo your grave. It shall remain undisclosed. God bless. Do nkt contacts me further. I will.not respond. Best wishes.
This is verbatim without any changes to the email.
This a confirmation of the relationship and does not deter me from entering the ancestor information in the family tree. The same information is in Gedmatch and triangulations confirms the match.
As long as you have validation, recorded proof in records just move on, we can never change how one thinks but we certainly can continue our journey finding our ancestors.
Researchers search for disease markers linked to diverse populations
In the emerging world of personalized medicine, researchers are furiously looking for disease markers specific to minority populations, and they have already made some promising discoveries. The clues they are gathering, the scientists said, could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases, such as asthma and heart disease, that disproportionately affect minorities, as well as eventually helping reduce longstanding health disparities.
This is encouraging news, especially as we observe National Minority Health Month in April.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is playing a key role in the quest to identify these so-called biomarkers, which show up in many forms, from blood proteins to genes. One recent NHLBI supported study, for example, identified a genetic marker that may help explain why the commonly used asthma drug albuterol is not as effective in African-American and Puerto Rican children as it is in European American or Mexican children. Further study of this chemical clue could lead to improved asthma therapies for all populations.
Another study, also funded by NHLBI, found that a substance called D-dimer, a byproduct of the breakdown of fibrin that is involved in blood clotting, could provide a useful marker for identifying stroke and heart disease risk in African-Americans. The substance is found at higher levels in African-Americans than in people of European ancestry, the researchers say. The researchers also confirmed that higher D-dimer levels were associated with sickle cell trait.
Both the lung and heart disease studies were made possible by genome-sequencing tools provided by NHLBI’s Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed program) Program. The program focuses on collecting and identifying genetic biomarkers from clinical study participants with heart, lung, blood, or sleep disorders. And it places special emphasis on collecting genetic data that represents the racial and ethnic diversity of the American population.
“We’re elated about these early findings,” said Cashell Jaquish, Ph.D., a genetic epidemiologist at NHLBI and a researcher in the TOPMed program. “But we’re only scratching the surface of what could be a treasure trove of biomarkers, particular in minority populations that have not been sufficiently represented in previous health studies.”
Jaquish added that by including many people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the study, researchers will be able to understand better how genetic variations influence disease risk.
The good news, she said, is that the studies extend well beyond lung and heart disease. The TOPMed program is also looking for biomarkers related to high blood pressure, COPD, sleep apnea, obesity and atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat).
Begun in 2014, the program has sequenced more than 100,000 genomes (gene collections) using data from patients who have volunteered to participate in NHLBI clinical studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, Jackson Heart Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The inclusion of these and other well-studied, multi-ethnic populations has made it easier to find biomarkers that are clinically relevant to all populations. And recent improvements in genetic technology have made sequencing faster. (Complementing TOPMed is the All of Us Research Program, a new cutting-edge effort to collect data from 1 million or more people in the United States to uncover biomarkers that can help deliver precision medicine for improved health.)
Esteban Burchard, M.D., M.P.H., a physician-scientist at the University of California, San Francisco, and the senior author of the asthma pharmacogenetics study, said the TOPMed program is “an important first step toward implementing precision medicine in all populations.”
In his asthma study, for example, Burchard and his colleagues collected genetic data from nearly 1,500 children across a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. The children had either a very high or very low drug response to albuterol. The researchers identified new genetic markers that could be used to predict which children are most likely to respond poorly to the drug. Among the top associated genes identified in the low-response group was a variant in the NFKB1 gene that is more prevalent in people with African ancestry. A better understanding of this variant could lead scientists to predict who will respond well to current and future asthma medications, the researcher said.
Burchard said that kind of discovery has value for everyone involved: “Racial and ethnic diversity in clinical and biomedical research leads to better science and improved clinical outcomes for all of us.”
A version of this blog was previously published in NHLBI News.
After Prison: A Second Chance, a New Job, Better Health
Source: The Ancestor Hunt by Kenneth Mark
When researching our ancestors, one of the most important events is obviously their birth (otherwise they wouldn’t be ancestors – but I digress). Determining the date and location of birth is important as we document the major events in their lives.
Most folks limit their search to the obvious repositories, whether online or not. But there are many ways to determine specifics about someone’s birth, as well as finding clues that help you narrow their birth date to at least a single year or two.
Most of these listed source types should not stand alone as evidence of the actual date and location of an ancestor’s’ birth – so you might want to check many of these sources to provide corroborating evidence.
Source Type List of 27 ways to find clues and evidence about your ancestors’ birth:
Basically – any document that contains the age of the person, and is dated – can lead you to the year of the person’s birth; and depending on who completed the document, the evidence can be quite good, or sometimes misleading.
Skin color and ‘race’: Genetics reveal complicated relationship
For much of recorded history, skin color has been loaded with powerful social meaning. Skin color plays a major part in how we define race. It also plays a significant role in racism. New studies of the genetics of skin color, though, have begun to shed light on how wrong those assumptions about the relationship between race and skin color really are.
In a new study of indigenous southern African people published … in the journal Cell, researchers … report that the number of genes involved in skin pigmentation increase in number—and therefore also complexity—the closer they reside to the equator.
[C]olor lines are, in essence, meaningless. Our skin color is the result of many, many different genes which work together in different combinations to produce different colors of skin. Many of those genes are shared across racial, cultural, and geographic boundaries.
These new studies of skin color also suggest a second theme: In genetics, the vast majority of data has been gathered from Northern Eurasian populations, and that in turn has created a biased and incomplete portrait of how the genetics of things like skin color really work.
[Editor’s note: Read full study
Read full, original post: How the Genetics of Skin Color Challenges Antiquated Ideas About Race