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Cousin Calculator

This question of relationships gets asked a lot by readers. So the charts and calculator. Have fun and remember if you have no tree but you are looking at your DNA it most likely will not help you much.

PrenticeNet Cousin Calculator

Cousin Terms and Definitions

First Cousin 
Your first cousin is a child of your aunt or uncle. You share one set of grandparents with your first cousin, but you do not have the same parents.

Second Cousin 
Your second cousin is the grandchild of your great-aunt or great-uncle. You share one set of great-grandparents with your second cousin, but you do not have the same grandparents.

Third, Fourth, and Fifth Cousins 
Your third cousin is the great-grandchild of your great-great-aunt or great-great-uncle. You share a set of great-great-grandparents with your third cousin, but do not have the same great-grandparents. Fourth cousins have one set of great-great-great-grandparents, but not the same great-great-grandparents. And so on.

Double Cousins
If two siblings in one family marry two siblings from another family and each couple has a child, the children are double first cousins. The word double in addition to the first cousin term is because they share the same four grandparents. Regular first cousins share only one set of common grandparents, while double first cousins share both sets of grandparents plus all lineal and collateral relatives.

Removed
The relationships of cousins of different generations are explained by using the word “removed”. Cousins who are “once removed” have a one-generation difference. For example, the first cousin of your father is your first cousin, once removed. In that case, your father’s first cousin is one generation younger than your grandparents and you are two generations younger than your grandparents. This one-generation difference is explained by saying that you are cousins “once removed.”. Removed cousin relationships is never measured by age, but only by generation differences.

Twice removed means that there is a two-generation difference between cousins. If you are two generations younger than the first cousin of your grandparent, then the relationship between you and your grandparent’s first cousin are first cousins, twice removed.

Cousin relationships can be any combination of first, second, third and so on, with once removed, twice removed, and so on. A genealogy program will calculate exact family relationships in your family tree for both blood relatives and relatives by marriage.

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Sissieretta Jones

Overlooked No More: Sissieretta Jones, a Soprano Who Shattered Racial Barriers

She was the first African-American woman to headline a concert at Carnegie Hall, but she didn’t care for her stage name, “the Black Patti,” which compared her to a white diva.

Read more: New York Times – http://rejuvenationmedia.com/overlooked-no-more-sissieretta-jones-a-soprano-who-shattered-racial-barriers/

Access 8/19/18

Understanding DNA

Ten Helpful Tools For Teaching DNA or understanding DNA
Whether you are teaching genetics or learning genetics for the first, or the umpteenth time, our list of Ten Helpful Tools offers new ideas and techniques that will pep your understanding of DNA. Several image sources, interactive tools, and activities you will not want to miss!

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Discovering Our DNA: Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Hausa

Source: African Royal DNA Project, access 7/9/2018

WE ARE ONE FAMILY OF PEOPLE, DO NOT GET TRAPPED INTO THE CONSTRUCT OF DIVISION AND ETHNICITY. 

I have have been asked to explain a few details again so all new members/subscribers can learn and receive the tools needed to dig deeper.  So here we go.

We know that many of us have taken the autosomal DNA test at FTDNA.com , 23andme.com , Ancestry.com or MyHeritage.com or other Autosomal DNA testing companies.  We are waiting patiently for that breakthrough of finding our Africa Born DNA matches.  We are hoping that the matches can tell us the ethnic group(s), family names, kingdoms and cultures from which they hail.

Regarding Africans Americans and other Africans that have been in the Diaspora for hundreds of years.  We have a different and new story to tell.  Our Ancestors passed DNA down to us.  African Descendants in the Diaspora, NEVER feel that you have to select ONLY ONE of your ethnic groups and stick with that one.  Explore ALL of your ancestry.

Our people were scattered and so was their DNA . We are an amalgamation of their struggles and their success .  We are here because of them!  African Descendants in America whose ancestors have been here for hundreds of years are of multiple African ethnic groups.  

Don’t allow anyone to tell you otherwise .  We are one from MANY !! Even on the continent of Africa , many groups intermarried .  We know the so called ethnic group is a social construct but on a realistic level, they are family groups that can trace their lineage back for generations.  Do the research yourself and ignore the “social media” scholars or anyone that has not sat down with African Elders and Royals to learn their family history.  Avoid TRIBALISM at all costs.  Tribalism is the belief that one ethnic group is better than all others and they are more superior.  No ethnic group or culture is better than the other.  We are ONE HUGE FAMILY.  This is OURSTORY

One confusing factor is ONLY testing with companies that tell you the results of one line.  That is OK to do.  I did it in 2008 .  Each generation that you go back, your ancestors double.  We have 2 parents, 4 grandparents, 8 great grandparents and so on .  Each of them could be of a different African ethnic group !! 

So In addition to testing that one line, If you can afford it , Take an Autosomal DNA test and research your actual DNA matches (REAL people that you can communicate with) .  The Autosomal DNA test costs between $79-$99 at 23andme.com , Ancestry.com or MyHeritage.com .  You may find some African matches from various ethnic groups. You may find many matches from around the world.  Keep digging .  We are more than one African ethnic group.

The chart below gives an idea of about how many ancestors you have going back 10 generations.  They may have come from different ethnic groups.  

RESEARCH EACH WEBSITE AND THEIR TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE USING.

We are not going to lie to you.  We all know that there is NO GUARANTEE that you will find an Africa DNA match.  Some of us have found several matches and have reconnected with our families.

Here are some ways to widen the net though.  These helpful options are steps that I have taken myself.  They have proven to be very helpful especially since many people have DNA tested at one company and have elected NOT to test at another.

There is a place where your DNA raw data can go and meet up with other people’s DNA raw data that tested at different DNA testing companies.   We can all chillax and do this for for FREE!!  OK.. Let me clarify…. Its like a meet up for ya DNA raw data.

The goal is to upload your DNA raw data to the websites that you have not tested or to the sites like Gedmatch.com to help you compare shared segments on Chromosomes between you and others that have also uploaded.

AS ALWAYS ~~ RESEARCH THESE WEBSITES AND READ THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS BEFORE UPLOADING TO THEM.

1. Log in to the company that you took the autosomal DNA test with.  This is the test that analyzes about 98% of your DNA that is from your mother’s and your father’s side of your family.   FTDNA.com , 23andme.com , Ancestry.com or MyHeritage.com and go to DNA raw data.

2. Download the DNA raw data.

3. Rename the file to the name of the person that tested. This is VERY important!! Especially if you have more that one that you will download and it is coming from more than one company. Make each file name unique. I usually add the name and company tested on the end (examples AncestryDNA_AdaEze.zip or 23andme_AdaEze.Zip )
.
4. Save the file in a back up location because you will need it a few more times

5. Go to Gedmatch.com for FREE (register if you do not have an account)

6. Upload the DNA raw data to Gedmatch.com .  If you have issues uploading , no worries, go to step 7.

7.  EVERYONE should follow this step.  Go to Genesis.Gedmatch.com . Sign in with the same username and password that you created for your Gedmatch.com account.  (This site has a BETTER DNA matching system and  This is extremely important if you want to see if you match any of the African Royals of our African Royal DNA Project)

8.  Upload the DNA raw there as well.

10. Go to FTDNA.com for FREE (register if you do not have an account)

11. Upload the DNA raw data to FTDNA.com

12. Go to MyHeritage.com for FREE (register if you do not have an account)

13. Upload the DNA raw data to MyHeritage.com

14. Go to DNA.Land for FREE (register if you do not have an account)

15. Upload the DNA raw data to DNA.Land

16. Go to wegene.com/en/ (register if you do not have an account).  This site is for DNA percentages ONLY.  No matches.

17. Upload the DNA raw data to wegene.com/en/

18.  Go to www.gencove.com and create an account.  Verify the account creation via your email. This site is for DNA percentages ONLY.  No matches.

19.  Opt out of Research if you wish and Upload your DNA Raw Data.

20.  Create and Account at www.Geneplaza.com .  This site is for DNA percentages ONLY.  No matches.

21.  Upload your 23andme.com or Ancestry.com DNA Raw Data.

22.  Complete the steps and this link and upload the DNA raw data https://www.livingdna.com/en-us/one-family/research/apply

24. Create an account at https://www.yourdnaportal.com .  This site is for DNA percentages ONLY.  No matches.

25.  Upload your DNA raw data there to see health details and/or Population Calculations

Join us on Facebook .  Click here or the image below, select Join and answer the required questions .

AFRICAN ROYAL DNA PROJECT
We have Autosomal DNA tested several African Royals born in Ghana, Cameroon, Nigeria, Cote D’ivoire and Benin via Ancestry.com.  I have uploaded their DNA raw data to Genesis.Gedmatch.com, Gedmatch.com, FTDNA.com and MyHeriatge.com for FREE.  If you have ALREADY taken the Autosomal DNA test and have uploaded your DNA raw data to Genesis.gedmatch,com , you can check to see if you match any of them.  Click the image below for details about the African Royal DNA Project.  Click the image below.

Read More:
Discovering Our African DNA Cousins
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When the DNA results are not what was expected!

It’s not for us to choose

When the DNA results are not what was expected… The question came in again this past week, as it has so many times in recent years. A genealogist had asked others in the family to test to further the genealogist’s own research. When the results came in, well, they…

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Where are Argentina’s black people?

We are one, aren’t we?

https://eur02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=https%3A%2F%2Felpais.com%2Felpais%2F2017%2F01%2F09%2Finenglish%2F1483966582_337204.html%3Fid_externo_promo%3Denviar_email&data=02%7C01%7C%7C7316e45dbf724438937b08d5c1be776c%7C84df9e7fe9f640afb435aaaaaaaaaaaa%7C1%7C0%7C636627946137602901&sdata=jHG5e3zn6cUhHrtTPfOmBb9CQJLyk%2FgBP0vaTwS%2BylM%3D&reserved=0

J.F.S. match to me, predictive relationship 2nd cousin and we share Great Grandparents
23andMe match 2nd cousin on 14 markers, we share 93 relatives together, haplogroup for me L2ala2 and for J.F.S. L2ale
Here is the response to my inquiry:
Good day, sir. There is no Saluda Slade, in this family tree. What i have discovered is the males and females have given birth to children without ever notifying their spouses. This occured from males and females. It appears females had cgildren without notifying their future spouse. It also appears males had children, though married, with other women, while married. So far, tge females did not produce progeny, while married, howebwr males, did. That explaines tge DNA segment matches of 3.8% and lower. I have been contacted by white families as well and are disghusted to know I am their NEICE, AUNT and 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th cousin and that i am lredominantky of SubSaharan descent. They were comoletwky unaware that their father, though married to thwir mothwr fathered a black child. THIS CONNECTION IS ON THE PATERNAL HAPLOTYPE AND THE MALE HAD SEX WITH AN UNKNOWN FEMALE AND PRODUCED A CHILD. When I shared your email with the remainder of my family, they prefer that they not open a can of worms. I shall comply with tge majority of this famiky and any i fidelities that resukted in offspring shall remain unknown. How does it go, till dwath do we part. Thank you for informing us, our paternal great- great -great-grandfather had a relationship he didnt want to disclose. He is dead. Been dead for 3 generations and he may not have know of the conception. Since he didnt know, and his son dindt know, and his grand son didny know and his great grand aon disnt know and his great, great, grrat grand son dinsy know, none kf yhis current family deaires to knkw what he did, before he married his wife. Sir, i shall reacy as my white 1sy cousin. Take this informayion with you, yo your grave. It shall remain undisclosed. God bless. Do nkt contacts me further. I will.not respond. Best wishes.
This is verbatim without any changes to the email.
This a confirmation of the relationship and does not deter me from entering the ancestor information in the family tree. The same information is in Gedmatch and triangulations confirms the match.
As long as you have validation, recorded proof in records just move on, we can never change how one thinks but we certainly can continue our journey finding our ancestors.

Researchers Search for Disease Makers Linked to Diverse Populations

Researchers search for disease markers linked to diverse populations

Summary:
As we observe Minority Health Month, scientists are finding clues that may lead to improved treatment of diseases that disproportionately affect minorities.

In the emerging world of personalized medicine, researchers are furiously looking for disease markers specific to minority populations, and they have already made some promising discoveries. The clues they are gathering, the scientists said, could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases, such as asthma and heart disease, that disproportionately affect minorities, as well as eventually helping reduce longstanding health disparities.

This is encouraging news, especially as we observe National Minority Health Month in April.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is playing a key role in the quest to identify these so-called biomarkers, which show up in many forms, from blood proteins to genes. One recent NHLBI supported study, for example, identified a genetic marker that may help explain why the commonly used asthma drug albuterol is not as effective in African-American and Puerto Rican children as it is in European American or Mexican children. Further study of this chemical clue could lead to improved asthma therapies for all populations.

Another study, also funded by NHLBI, found that a substance called D-dimer, a byproduct of the breakdown of fibrin that is involved in blood clotting, could provide a useful marker for identifying stroke and heart disease risk in African-Americans. The substance is found at higher levels in African-Americans than in people of European ancestry, the researchers say. The researchers also confirmed that higher D-dimer levels were associated with sickle cell trait.

Both the lung and heart disease studies were made possible by genome-sequencing tools provided by NHLBI’s Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed program) Program. The program focuses on collecting and identifying genetic biomarkers from clinical study participants with heart, lung, blood, or sleep disorders. And it places special emphasis on collecting genetic data that represents the racial and ethnic diversity of the American population.

Diverse American population

“We’re elated about these early findings,” said Cashell Jaquish, Ph.D., a genetic epidemiologist at NHLBI and a researcher in the TOPMed program. “But we’re only scratching the surface of what could be a treasure trove of biomarkers, particular in minority populations that have not been sufficiently represented in previous health studies.”

Jaquish added that by including many people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the study, researchers will be able to understand better how genetic variations influence disease risk.

The good news, she said, is that the studies extend well beyond lung and heart disease. The TOPMed program is also looking for biomarkers related to high blood pressure, COPD, sleep apnea, obesity and atrial fibrillation (irregular heartbeat).

Begun in 2014, the program has sequenced more than 100,000 genomes (gene collections) using data from patients who have volunteered to participate in NHLBI clinical studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, Jackson Heart Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The inclusion of these and other well-studied, multi-ethnic populations has made it easier to find biomarkers that are clinically relevant to all populations. And recent improvements in genetic technology have made sequencing faster. (Complementing TOPMed is the All of Us Research Program, a new cutting-edge effort to collect data from 1 million or more people in the United States to uncover biomarkers that can help deliver precision medicine for improved health.)

Esteban Burchard, M.D., M.P.H., a physician-scientist at the University of California, San Francisco, and the senior author of the asthma pharmacogenetics study, said the TOPMed program is “an important first step toward implementing precision medicine in all populations.”

In his asthma study, for example, Burchard and his colleagues collected genetic data from nearly 1,500 children across a wide range of ethnic backgrounds. The children had either a very high or very low drug response to albuterol. The researchers identified new genetic markers that could be used to predict which children are most likely to respond poorly to the drug. Among the top associated genes identified in the low-response group was a variant in the NFKB1 gene that is more prevalent in people with African ancestry. A better understanding of this variant could lead scientists to predict who will respond well to current and future asthma medications, the researcher said.

Burchard said that kind of discovery has value for everyone involved: “Racial and ethnic diversity in clinical and biomedical research leads to better science and improved clinical outcomes for all of us.”

A version of this blog was previously published in NHLBI News.

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