CELL, ORGANELLES AND DNA RESOURCES

CELL, ORGANELLES, & DNA RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS, GENETIC GENEALOGIST AND YOU

Resource: Unlockinglifecode.org access 1/2018

1 | Cell
2 | Nucleus
3 | Golgi Body
4 | Mitochondrion
5 | Lysosome
6 | Centriole
7 | Ribosome
8 | Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
9 | Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
10 | Cytoplasm
11 | Nucleopore
12 | Chromosome
13 | Gene
14 | DNA
15 | Base Pair
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What I Learn About My Ancient Ancestry (Geno 2 Project)

Here is what I learned about my ancient ancestry:

I AM

Neanderthal Man

0.7%

NEANDERTHAL

Modern Man

As humans were first migrating out of Africa more than 60,000 years ago, Neanderthals were still living in Eurasia. It seems our ancestors hit it off, leaving a small trace of these ancient relatives in my DNA.

I AM

  • 79% Western Africa

  • 5% Northwestern Europe

  • 4% Eastern Africa

  • 4% West Mediterranean

  • 3% Northeastern Europe

  • 3% Eastern Europe

MY MAP

MY MATERNAL LINEAGE BEGAN ABOUT 150,000 YEARS AGO.

My maternal ancestors spread from east-central Africa to northwestern Africa at a time when the climate and landscape were more hospitable. They settled from the central-West African coast to North Africa. In the north, my cousins are now part of populations such as the Berber peoples. The Berbers are traditionally livestock herders. Toward west-central Africa, I have cousins among traditional farming groups.

My maternal branch is L2a1a2

Maternal Map

MY PATERNAL LINEAGE BEGAN AT LEAST 180,000 YEARS AGO.

My paternal ancestors spread from Central Africa to West Africa. My cousins include the Bantu-speaking people. The Bantu had an advanced farming culture, and were the first people in sub-Saharan Africa to work iron. Later expansions to the east and south introduced agriculture across Africa and spread the Bantu languages throughout the continent.

My paternal branch is E-U186

Paternal Map

That’s my story. What’s your story?

Geno 2 Video on DNA

https://player.theplatform.com/p/ngs/genogeno-embed-playergeno-embed-playerembed-player/select/media/KMhGi9j4V_s0?feedParams=byGuid%3D00000144-b6e8-d540-a5d6-ffe90c5b0000&autoPlay=true&t=1

Thanks GivingTo All

Thank you for registering as a follower on www.africanamericangnealogydna.com. We have a lot to be thankful. We have over 9,000 members in our family tree and growing. We are blessed to be able to research and network with scientists, data collectors, DNA research companies, DNA experts around the world to bring you the latest developments and outcomes published today.  It is because of our members we can continue to bring you the best of the best. As a gift for your support, we will be sending each registered member a free digital copy of the book “Genealogy and DNA for beginners Researching African-American-Native American Genealogy”.

If you would like information on a specific subject or question answered, please email me at b.dmontgomery@gmail.com.

Thanks Giving to all.

Benjamin Montgomery

The Genome Ball

Feature Story: The Genome Ball

Forget Those X-Shaped Chromosomes

A Genome Looks Like This

Visitors to the Genome exhibition are frequently intrigued by the Genome Ball, a three-dimensional model of the human genome that represents a creative synthesis of scientific knowledge and technical innovation. For students and adults raised on clinically produced karyotypes – those artificially arranged pairs of X-shaped chromosomes photographed during cell division – the Genome Ball will challenge all their previous (mis)conceptions and show the human genome in a new light.

How did we first begin to grasp the structure of the nucleus? It all began in 1682 when Anton van Leeuwenhoek, a fabric merchant in the Dutch city of Delft, examined blood cells of fish. Leeuwenhoek used a microscope with lenses he’d ground himself, and reported his observations in a letter to the Royal Society:

I came to observe the blood of a cod and of a salmon, which I also found to consist of hardly anything but oval figures … it seemed to me that some of them enclosed in a small space a little round body or globule …

If you’ve looked at human blood under a microscope, that description may sound odd:  Mature red blood cells (RBCs) don’t contain nuclei – do they? You’re right! However, the RBCs of fish (and amphibians and reptiles) do indeed have nuclei, and Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe them. Nevertheless, the Royal Society wasn’t blown away by his letter (after all, how much could a business man with “little fortune and no formal education” know about science?). The “little round body or globule” remained nameless for the next 150 years.

Then, in 1831, the Scottish botanist Robert Brown was studying plant fertilization when he noticed that pollen moved in and out of “ovals” in the plant cells. He called each oval a “nucleus,” a Latin word meaning “nut” or “kernel” – a bit like a black walnut surrounded by its thick green hull. Not only did Brown’s name stick, but his 1833 paper even suggested that the nucleus was probably involved in fertilization and the development of embryos.

The next step in our nuclear narrative was taken by Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss physician who extracted and isolated a previously unknown substance from pus-soaked bandages at the hospital where he worked. White blood cells, a major constituent of pus, have very large nuclei, and Miescher correctly concluded that the substance came from those nuclei. He called it “nuclein.” Today we call it DNA.

How many chromosomes in a human cell?

Although the fine points of cell division were still unexplained, scientists in the early 1900s were eager to learn the number of chromosomes in human cells. However, counting the number of human chromosomes during cell division turned out to be quite a challenge. Even when chromosomes were lined up on the “midline” of a cell, scientists’ counts ranged from 16 to 36.

Evidently, Hans von Winiwarter got tired of these wide-ranging approximations. Using the best microscopes available to him in 1912, he produced early karyotypes by capturing and fixing human cells at the moment of cell division. Despite his best efforts, Winiwarter’s counts ranged from 46 to 49; and while noting correctly that women have two X chromosomes, he mistakenly concluded that males had only one X and no Y.  For the next 40+ years, students were generally taught that human cells contained 48 chromosomes.

Finally, in 1956, the correct value of “46” was confirmed – 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes in human cells other than eggs or sperm. It’s surprising to learn that Watson & Crick had published their model of DNA’s structure, opening the world of modern genetics, several years before the number of human chromosomes was firmly established!

Good things come in small packages

By the end of the 20th century, knowledge of DNA structure and the mechanisms of cell division had advanced dramatically. Yet, based on their school textbooks, most people still tended to picture chromosomes as the condensed “X-shaped” bodies seen in karyotypes. DNA was known to uncoil between cell divisions, but it was hard to imagine how such long straggling threads (more than 2 meters, or 6 feet, per cell) could pack into a nucleus only 6/1,000,000 of a meter in diameter (smaller than the diameter of a human hair).

Eventually, studies showed that DNA decreases in length when regions of about 166 base pairs wrap like twine around small proteins to form complexes known as nucleosomes . A short stretch of non-wound DNA falls between each nucleosomal unit, the result looking a bit like a string of beads. In such a configuration, a 1-meter (3-foot) strand of DNA is reduced to 14 cm (about 6 inches). This shortened strand then coils even more, until an X-shaped chromosome in a dividing cell measures roughly 1/10,000 the length of the DNA strand it contains!

The “fractal globule” (aka ramen noodles)

So what does the 3-dimensional model of the nucleus, as seen in the Genome Ball, have to do with all this?

 

One of the most important discoveries in genome biology has been the demonstration that genomes are non-randomly organized in the nucleus.

Even though chromatin looks like long straggly threads, it is amazingly well organized: Thanks to the organized coiling of chromatin, genes are able to interact with the DNA regions that regulate them.

The genome is organized into “distinct regions of open and closed chromatin regulatory domains,” explains Dr. Laura Elnitski, senior investigator at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health. Put more simply, chromatin that is less active in a given cell type, or chromosomes containing few genes, are located just inside the nuclear membrane; but more active chromatin (for example, a gene coding for insulin in healthy pancreatic cells), and chromosomes carrying many genes, occupy the center of the nucleus. Overall, the nuclear location of specific genes correlates with their activity in a given cell.

Erez Aiden (who spearheaded the Genome Ball project) also discussed chromatin organization in his prize-winning essay in Science: “Loci on the same chromosome – even at opposite ends – interact more than loci on different chromosomes.” And within individual chromosomes, “open [active] chromatin interacts more with open chromatin and closed with closed,” wrote Aiden. In short:  Genes have more interactions with regions on their own chromosome; and within any given chromosome, active regions group together with other active regions, while quiet or gene-poor areas group with other quiet regions.

Aiden had found a paper theorizing that long polymers – DNA is a good example – are able to form very tight coils with no knots, “a configuration known as the fractal globule.” One of the most striking characteristics of the fractal globule is that it can be folded and refolded without disturbing the rest of the condensed polymer.

 

The fractal globule is easy to explain to graduate students because it closely resembles the only food we can afford: ramen, said Aiden.

Uncooked, the noodles don’t contain any knots. Even when partially cooked, they don’t get tangled in the cooking pan. However, ramen noodles do become tangled after cooking, whereas chromatin stably maintains its unknotted state throughout interphase – the period between cell divisions when chromatin in the nucleus uncoils. In that condensed but non-knotted configuration, sections of chromatin that are far apart on the long strands may be brought into proximity. Thus, interactions between chromatin on the same chromosome, or between sections with similar properties or functions, are made possible by the way chromatin is organized in the interphase nucleus.

These are but a few of the innovative and complex understandings that inspired the creators of the Genome Ball (for more information about the 3-D printing of the Genome Ball displayed at the exhibition, see the feature article “Super 3D Model: How the Genome Ball Was Created” on this website). Our knowledge of the nucleus has come a long way in the 332 years since Leeuwenhoek. But, as Aiden’s Science essay concluded: “at the fringes of our maps the world is full of surprises.”

The same is certainly true of the nucleus.

Source: Unlockinglifescode.org/the-genome-ball. Access November 19, 2017, Genome Project NIH

Resources:

(1) Zoom!” Science 334 (2 December 2011): 1222-1223.

(2) “DNA packaging: Nucleosomes and Chromatin.” Nature Education 1 (2008):26.

(3) “Regulatory and Epigenetic Landscapes of Mammalian Genomes,” Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2014. March 26, 2014.

(4) “Leeuwenhoek Sees the Cell Nucleus.” Science of Aging: Timeline of Discoveries.

(5) Comprehensive Mapping of Long-Range Interactions Reveals Folding Principles of the Human Genome. Science 326 (9 October 2009): 189-324.

Who are your ancestors, Can you identify your relatives?

We are all over this world in many countries, with differences, shades of color, opinions, thoughts. Make no mistake we are one, our ancestors came out of Africa. It’s in your DNA. I have found relatives in Brazil, India, Iran, Syria, Australia, Mexico, Boro Bora, Korea, China, and Japan. Never stop your journey finding your past. Gedmatch is a good place to start.

DNA collection, testing, and results are different for people of color and the algorithms used are not geared towards our DNA but can be very useful.  It is Eurocentric, however, Helix, National Geo2, and 23andMe are moving towards a more inclusive model. Also, there are new projects in many countries to match DNA for people around the world.

 

 

 

National Human Genome Institute: Why Some people Grow Out Of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

https://www.genome.gov?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769
Adult ADHD: An imbalance between the online and offline brain (https://www.genome.gov/27569602/2017-news-feature-adult-adhd-an-imbalance-between-the-online-and-offline-brain/?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769)
https://www.genome.gov/27569602/2017-news-feature-adult-adhd-an-imbalance-between-the-online-and-offline-brain/?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769
By Jeannine Mjoseth (mailto:Jeannine.Mjoseth@nih.gov)
November 7, 2017

A new study by researchers at the National Human Genome Institute (NHGRI) examined why some people grow out of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), while others continue to have symptoms into adulthood. They discovered that adults with ADHD persisting from childhood partly lose the usual balance of connections between brain networks that control action and those that control daydreaming or introspecting. Researchers have argued that this imbalance – between the brain “online” and the brain “offline”- might account for the lapses of attention that are found in ADHD.  By contrast, adults who had “grown out” of their childhood ADHD, did not show such a loss of balanced brain activity, according to findings published October 31, 2017, in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS).

“We hope to understand the mechanisms that explain why some people outgrow ADHD and other do not,” said Philip Shaw, B.M.B.Ch., Ph.D., senior author and an investigator in NHGRI’s Social and Behavioral Research Branch (https://www.genome.gov/11508935/Social-and-Behavioral-Research-Branch/Social-and-Behavioral-Research-Branch/Social-and-Behavioral-Research-Branch?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769) .  “If we can understand why some people can recover from ADHD, we also might be able to apply this knowledge to other neuro-developmental conditions like learning disabilities or problems with social interaction.”

ADHD (https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769)  is a heritable and treatable brain disorder marked by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that can cause great difficulties with impulse control, attention span in school, social situations and the workplace. Around 20 to 30 percent of people with ADHD retain the full syndrome as young adults and about 50 percent show partial, though not complete remission.

The researchers looked at brain function in 205 adult participants: 101 participants had been diagnosed with childhood ADHD and 104 subjects never had ADHD. They looked at changes in the brain’s oxygen levels to determine the location of brain networks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (mailto:http://fmri.ucsd.edu/Research/whatisfmri.html) , and they studied the different levels of neuronal activity that by looking at the brain’s magnetic fields using magnetoencephalography (mailto:http://ilabs.washington.edu/what-magnetoencephalography-meg) .

Regardless of the type of brain imaging used, the researchers found that adults who had inattentive symptoms persisting from childhood lost the usual balance of connections between the online and offline brain networks. Specifically, a network that is prominent when a person is introspective is usually switched off when a person engages in tasks. This balance was partly lost in the adults with persistent inattention. By contrast, this pattern of connections between brain networks in adults who outgrew ADHD looked very similar to the adults who never had ADHD. These findings support the theory that among individuals who recover from ADHD, there is a childhood disruption to brain function that corrects itself by adulthood.

“Most adults have a balance between the online, task-oriented brain and the offline, day-dreaming brain, but we found that’s not the case for adults whose ADHD persists,” said Gustavo Sudre, Ph.D., study co-author and postdoctoral research fellow in Dr. Shaw’s lab. “We found that adults who recovered from ADHD had a very similar balance of online and offline brains to those who never had ADHD.”

NHGRI’s investment in this type of high impact, longitudinal research and the participants’ long-term commitment to ADHD research make studies like this possible.

“We first met these individuals at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center when they were eight years old,” Dr. Shaw said. “They are so committed to ADHD research that they have kept coming back for 14 years. It’s great to see so many of the children who had severe ADHD grow into adults who are managing very well.”

In the next step of their research, Drs. Shaw and Gustavo will collaborate with an international ADHD research consortium to find genes associated with the disrupted brain networks.
Read the study

Sudre G, Szekely E, Sharp W, Kasparek S, Shaw P. Multimodal mapping of the brain’s functional connectivity and the adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (http://www.pnas.org/content/114/44/11787.full?utm_source=NHGRI+Email+Updates&utm_campaign=5b96bdbf21-Skin+Pigmentation+publications&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3d227b0341-5b96bdbf21-118937769) . PNAS, October 31, 2017.
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New GEDmatch Genesis Beta

 
 

 

GEDmatch Genesis

GEDmatch Genesis is a peek at things to come for GEDmatch. It provides two things:

    • Ability to accept uploads from testing companies with formats and SNP sets not compatible with the current main GEDmatch database.
  • A new comparison algorithm that we believe will provide better accuracy, and more flexibility. More info: The Genesis Algorithm

During this initial deployment, the GEDmatch Genesis database will be separate from the main GEDmatch database, and comparisons for one will not show entries made in the other. Eventually, the 2 databases will be merged, and results will include entries from both. Likewise, the benefits of the Genesis comparison algorithm will eventually become available to all GEDmatch users.

The initial offering of Genesis applications will be limited to autosomal DNA matches. That too will be expanded as we move forward in our effort to convert existing GEDmatch software to the new algorithm.

We hope you find this transition to GEDmatch Genesis useful.

 

 

 

The Genesis Algorithm

For several years, GEDmatch has provided genetic genealogists, both beginners and experts, the ability to search for matches among kits in their database without regard to vendor. Also, GEDmatch has provided a rich suite of analysis programs allowing users to dig deeply into the genetic details of their matches, enhance the reports from their vendors, and even pursue their own original research ideas. Our algorithms are evolving to extract the most trustworthy and meaningful matching information possible using the markers common to pairs of kits even though sometimes limited.

Unfortunately, all too often, kits appear to share a DNA segment purely by chance. To combat this confusing phenomenon, we recently have developed a reliability measure that allows users to assess the quality of a matching segment in an intuitively appealing fashion. We also use the measure to guide our matching algorithms as they wring the greatest amount of useful information possible from the markers common to pairs of kits.

If we could assume that marker characteristics were uniform in all regions within chromosomes, we could use a “one size fits all” requirement for matching segments as is sometimes done. Unfortunately, the relevant characteristics vary widely. Some long segments with few markers may be accidental matches. Some marker rich short segments are often discarded although they are profoundly non-random.

Using the characteristics of each and every marker in a segment, we compute the expected number of purely chance matches to it to be found in the database. That number is then used to classify the segment into one of several levels reflecting the likelihood that the random matches may overwhelm the real ones. When a user executes a one-to-many search or a one-to-one comparison specifying a minimum segment length, the display can then include an estimate of validity for each segment found.

One can assume those segments designated to be valid are the result of a DNA inheritance process rather than mere chance. Questions may still remain about how far back shared DNA originates, but a confounding factor has been removed.

sources:

https://genesis.gedmatch.com/select.php

https://genesis.gedmatch.com/Qblurb.html

 

DNA Test Options, Indigenous African Results and More

DNA Test Options, Indigenous African Results and More

DNAtestedafricans.org for further information. DNAtestedafricans.org is not a testing company and does not suggest any of the companies listed in this article. We offer a connection to purchase DNA kits, but it is your decision based on what you want to test for ancestry. The top three testing companies based on company reputation, services offered, testing methods, software grade, research and scientific evidence, CLIA and FDA compliance (US based) customer reviews, price, customer service and return policy.

#1. CRI Genetics (Cellular Research Institute)

#2. Family Tree DNA

#3 Living DNA Your Ancestry

for further reading go to http://www.geneticsdigest.com/best_ancestry_genealogy_dna_test

 

DNA Test can be done at 12, 25, 37, 67 or 111 markers. I recommend the 67-marker test, it gives you the best results for your money.

For more information or questions contact: DNAtestedafricans.org or africanamericangenealogydna.com

August 28, 2017

African Greetings Family!

   We hope you are all doing well.  Let’s start with a video of brother Saad Tafida.  He is an Indigenous African that tested to learn about his ancestry and to find his family in the Diaspora.  He is Fulani.  (He will tell you more about that on the video so we don’t want to spoil it).

   As it turns out, he is my eldest daughter’s DNA match.  She is able to watch these videos and learn more about a line of her culture and for that, we thank Saad tremendously!  We need more like him to share and explore with us.

Here are his results

He then downloaded his DNA raw data from the website that he tested with.  Then he uploaded to Gedmatch.com He speaks about that in his video.  He found more relatives that NEVER knew their ancestry.

 He uploaded the DNA Raw data to a few websites to find more family.  Click here to see how to do it.   https://www.dnatestedafricans.org/single-post/2017/07/13/Finding-More-DNA-Cousins-for-FREE

BE ENCOURAGED!!  More Indigenous Africans are testing and are looking for us as well too!!  

Now, here is some info on the current sale prices for a few major DNA testing companies.  You can click on each image to go to the website.  So now, let’s talk about the tests.

My Heritage DNA Test Kit $69.00

 

 

 

 

 

Everyone has asked, how do I get started on my DNA testing journey. This is a great place to start. Save this note because it is very useful to return to in the future.. Please read below.

We are NOT a DNA testing company. We do NOT sell DNA tests or profit from the sales of any tests. You must purchase the DNA test on your own. We simply explain what is available for YOU to research and determine what works for you. The information is provided by those of us that have DNA tested with EACH of the companies listed below.

We are a community of Volunteers focused on the ACRO concept. ACRO means African Culture and Reconciliation Organization. We coordinate cultural reception and integration via language classes, naming ceremonies and other enriching events after you have received your results.

We facilitate reconciliation of the DNA Tested African Diaspora and their African ethnic groups of ancestry. We provide you with 3rd party tools for YOU to research so you can determine which DNA Testing company and /or 3rd party tools for family tree building are most useful to you. We provide helpful templates for initial communications with your DNA matches as well as methods on how to get the most out of your test results.

 

Here is a good starting point to Research your AtDNA, MtDNA and the male YDNA. Please see the chart below.

Green is the autosomal DNA that can be tested by Ancestry, FTDNA Myheritage, and 23andme (they also provide DNA matches)

Blue is the YDNA that can be tested by FTDNA’s YDNA test (they provide DNA matches) and African Ancestry (they do NOT provide DNA matches)

Red is the MtDNA that can be tested by FTDNA’s Mt DNA test (they provide DNA matches) and African Ancestry (they do NOT provide DNA matches)

23andMe DBA Test Kit

“The information …..is meant to provide a very simple explanation of your Y-DNA and MtDNA Ancestry used for genealogical purposes. Scientists estimate that the total amount of Y-DNA of a man is less than 1% and the total amount of MtDNA in either a man or a woman is less than 1%. It is important to understand that after taking a Y-DNA and an MtDNA test, the majority of everyone’s DNA remains untested and it is called Autosomal DNA, with another 5% of a female’s DNA or 2 1/2% of a male’s DNA being x-chromosomal DNA. In a man this would mean roughly 95.5% of his DNA is Autosomal and in a woman that figure would be roughly 94%. “

Click here or copy and paste ~~ > https://phillipsdnaproject.com/faq-… ~~

Source: https://phillipsdnaproject.com/faq-sections/312-your-total-dna-makeup

UPDATE: We have been advised that African Ancestry does not do the Admix test anymore. Please check with their website to confirm.

Subscribe at www.dnatestedafricans.org

1. http://www.ancestry.com/ $79 Autosomal test ( saliva ) that analyses DNA from all of the contributors of your DNA. Both males and females can take this test. They test 700,000 markers !! Your DNA is tested 40 times and they provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. It takes about 6 to 8 weeks to receive a email from ancestry notifying you that your results are in. Sign into your ancestry account and explore your results.

You can download your DNA raw data from ancestry and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

You can also upload your DNA raw data to https://www.familytreedna.com/ for FREE.

Limitations of Ancestry: This test will not tell you the African ethnic groups that you share ancestry with. However, you may find African DNA matches that can tell you their ethnic group(s) and where they come from. Also when you upload to Gedmatch, you may find African matches that have also uploaded there.

www.ancestry.com

Ancestry.com Results of an African American

 

 

 

2. https://www.23andme.com/ $99 Autosomal test ( saliva ) that analyses DNA from all of the contributors of your DNA. Both males and females can take this test. They provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. Check with 23andme to determine the current wait time for their test results. Once you receive the email that your results are in, sign into your 23andme account and explore your results.

Advantage:  Over 4 million people around the world have DNA tested.  If you match them, you will see them in your DNA match list when you sign into your account.  You can download your DNA raw data from 23andme and upload it to Gedmatch.com (https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

You can also upload your DNA raw data to https://www.familytreedna.com/ for FREE.

Limitations of 23andme: This test will not tell you the African ethnic groups that you share ancestry with. However, you may find African DNA matches that can tell you their ethnic group(s) and where they come from. Also when you upload to Gedmatch, you may find African matches that have also uploaded there.

YOU research, YOU decide

https://www.23andme.com/

23andme.com Results

 

 

3. https://www.familytreedna.com/ Starting at $79 for the family finder test.   ( cheek swab ) **If you already DNA tested at ancestry.com or 23andme.com , please go to FTDNA and upload your DNA raw data from those sites to this one for FREE. It will SAVE you the cost of $99. FTDNA’s Autosomal DNA test is $99. (Keep in mine that your autosomal DNA is 50 % from your father and 50% from your mother) 

They also have Mtdna tests for your Direct maternal line and YDNA tests for your direct paternal line. Only males can take the YDNA test. See the website for prices on their MtDNA and YDNA tests.

Regarding their Autosomal DNA test, they provide you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. Check with FTDNA to determine the current wait time for their test results. Once you receive the email that your results are in, sign into your FTDNA account and explore your results. You can download your DNA raw data from FTDNA and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. You can download your DNA raw data from FTDNA and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, Myheritage.com , 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

Limitations for FTDNA: Their African database is LOW so you may not have very many matches. If you have a higher percentage of NON- African DNA, you may have a lot of DNA matches.

FTDNA.com Results

 

4.  Visit www.MyHeritage.com to see if their company is for you. Starting at $89 (often times on sale  for around $69) . Their AtDNA (autosomal) is a (cheek swab) test.  The Autosomal DNA test, provides you with percentages of your ancestry and a list of DNA matches (actual relatives)  that you can contact. You can research with those DNA matches to determine if they match on your mother’s side or your father’s side of the family. The DNA kit is mailed to you, you provide a small sample of saliva and follow the instructions to activate the kit. (Keep in mine that your autosomal DNA is 50 % from your father and 50% from your mother) 

Advantage:  This website accepts DNA raw data from ancestry.com , FTDNA.com and 23andme.com.  So if you already tested with these other companies, you only need to upload the data.  If you test with this company, you can download your DNA raw data from MyHeritage and upload it to Gedmatch.com ( https://www.gedmatch.com/login1.php ) for FREE to find more DNA matches. This is a website that allows us that have tested at FTDNA.com, Myheritage.com , 23andme.com, Wegene.com, and Ancestry.com , to upload there to find more family. And yes! It is FREE.

Limitations:  The DNA match database is still growing so you may not have a lot of matches  (cousins) on Myheritage.  However, uploading the DNA raw data to www.Gedmatch.com will surely give you more DNA matches.  

MyHeritage.com Results

 

5. Visit http://africanancestry.com/home/ to see if their company is for you. Starting at $200. Their MtDNA test about 8 markers of the HVR1 region. I would not recommend this company as a first choice at this point but it may be good after you have found that you have an African haplogroup with another company like FTDNA. This is a cheek swab test 

Advantage: If you took the YDNA test or MTDNA test with FTDNA and found that you have an African haplogroup, you may consider contacting them and paying around $200 to receive a certificate stating what African ethnic group(s) you share ancestry with. Their MtDNA and YDNA test starts at $285. ** About 35% of African Americans do NOT have African Mtdna line or YDNA line. See their website for details. Make an INFORMED decision.

Limitations of African Ancestry: They are the most costly DNA testing company for their YDNA, MtDNA test, and Autosomal. They do not test as many DNA markers as the other companies. The DNA raw data cannot be uploaded to any other website. They do not provide any DNA matches. If your test reveals your MtDNA line or your YDNA line is not African, you will not be able to find African relatives or African ethnic groups through them. You will need to test with one of the above companies. Source: http://shop.africanancestry.com/Mat… and http://shop.africanancestry.com/Pat… .

This test will not tell you that you are 100% of anything. It will not provide ANY percentages of your ethnicity. The percentages that they provide is a sequence similarity score. They test LESS than 1% of your DNA. The Cofounder can explain this to you.

 

AfricanAncestry.com Certificate Example

 

 

Make an INFORMED decision.

Please visit the website for each DNA test, research it and determine which company works for YOU!!

www.DNATestedAfricans.org

Note: All images belong to their perspective companies. This is for educational purposes to encourage research in order to make an informed decision about DNA testing.

Originally posted : https://www.facebook.com/notes/dna-tested-african-descendants/getting-started-dna-testing-options/1540241299613571/

 

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