Finding More DNA Cousins for Free

Finding More DNA Cousins for FREE

July 13, 2017

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AdaEze Naja Chinyere Njoku

 

Hello Family!

We sure hope you all are doing well.  We know that many of you that have taken the autosomal DNA test at FTDNA.com 23andme.com , Ancestry.com or MyHeritage.com are waiting patiently for that breakthrough of finding an Africa DNA match.  

Some of us are not being so patient.  Logging into the accounts 7 to 10 times daily, yelling at folks because we can’t find that match.  Talking to ourselves AND responding..  Creeping up on your computer from the side, like agent 007….  Acting as if it is hiding that match from you.  It’s OK.  We’ve been there too.  Please read a book or go fishing or something Shuga.  More people are testing.  We have to be patient.  It took some of us over 7 YEARS to get an Africa DNA match.  Oh but when we did!!!! 

 

Now, we are not going to lie to you.  We all know that there is NO GUARANTEE that you will find an Africa DNA match.  Here are some ways to widen the net though.  These helpful options are steps that I have taken myself.  They have proven to be very helpful especially since many people have DNA tested at one company and have elected NOT to test at another.  

There is a place where your DNA raw data can go and meet up with other people’s DNA raw data that tested at different DNA testing companies.   You all can chillax for FREE!!  OK.. Let me clarify…. Its like a meet up for ya raw data.

The goal is to upload your DNA raw data to the websites that you have not tested or to the sites like Gedmatch.com to help you compare shared segments on Chromosomes between you and others that have also uploaded.

Read more: DNAtestedafricans.org

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Proposed Algorithm to Study DNA Faster

Scientists propose an algorithm to study DNA faster and more accurately

January 18, 2016
Stylized image of DNA
Stylized image of DNA. Credit: bioinformatics101.wordpress.com

A team of scientists from Germany, the United States and Russia, including Dr. Mark Borodovsky, a Chair of the Department of Bioinformatics at MIPT, have proposed an algorithm to automate the process of searching for genes, making it more efficient. The new development combines the advantages of the most advanced tools for working with genomic data. The new method will enable scientists to analyse DNA sequences faster and more accurately and identify the full set of genes in a genome.

Although the paper describing the  only appeared recently in the journal Bioinformatics, which is published by Oxford Journals, the proposed method has already proven to be very popular—the computer  has been downloaded by more than 1500 different centres and laboratories worldwide. Tests of the algorithm have shown that it is considerably more accurate than other similar algorithms.

The development involves applications of the cross-disciplinary field of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics combines mathematics, statistics and computer science to study biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA and protein structures. DNA, which is fundamentally an information molecule, is even sometimes depicted in computerized form (see Fig. 1) in order to emphasize its role as a molecule of biological memory. Bioinformatics is a very topical subject; every new sequenced genome raises so many additional questions that scientists simply do not have time to answer them all. So automating processes is key to the success of any bioinformatics project, and these algorithms are essential for solving a wide variety of problems.

One of the most important areas of bioinformatics is annotating genomes – determining which particular DNA molecules are used to synthesize RNA and proteins (see Fig. 2). These parts –  – are of great scientific interest. The fact is that in many studies, scientists do not need information about the entire genome (which is around 2 metres long for a single human cell), but about its most informative part – genes. Gene sections are identified by searching for similarities between sequence fragments and known genes, or by detecting consistent patterns of the nucleotide sequence. This process is carried out using predictive algorithms.

Locating gene sections is no easy task, especially in eukaryotic organisms, which includes almost all widely known types of organism, except for bacteria. This is due to the fact that in these cells, the transfer of genetic information is complicated by “gaps” in the coding regions (introns) and because there are no definite indicators to determine whether a region is a coding region or not.

Diagram showing the transmission of hereditary information in a cell
Diagram showing the transmission of hereditary information in a cell. Credit: dnkworld.ru/transkripciya-i-translyaciya-dnk

The algorithm proposed by the scientists determines which regions in the DNA are genes and which are not. The scientists used a Markov chain, which is a sequence of random events, the future of which is dependent on past events. The states of the chain in this case are either nucleotides or nucleotide words (k-mers). The algorithm determines the most probable division of a genome into coding and noncoding regions, classifying the genomic fragments in the best possible way according to their ability to encode proteins or RNA. Experimental data obtained from RNA give additional useful information which can be used to train the model used in the algorithm. Certain gene prediction programs can use this data to improve the accuracy of finding genes. However, these algorithms require type-specific training of the model. For the AUGUSTUS software program, for example, which has a high level of accuracy, a training set of genes is needed. This set can be obtained using another program – GeneMark-ET – which is a self-training algorithm. These two algorithms were combined in the BRAKER1 algorithm, which was proposed jointly by the developers of AUGUSTUS and GeneMark-ET.

BRAKER1 has demonstrated a high level of efficiency. The developed program has already been downloaded by more than 1500 different centres and laboratories. Tests of the algorithm have shown that it is considerably more accurate than other similar algorithms. The example running time of BRAKER1 on a single processor is ∼17.5 hours for training and the prediction of genes in a genome with a length of 120 megabases. This is a good result, considering that this time may be significantly reduced by using parallel processors, and this means that in the future, the algorithm might function even faster and generally more efficiently.

Tools such as these solve a variety of problems. Accurately annotating genes in a genome is extremely important – an example of this is the global 1000 Genomes Project, the initial results of which have already been published. Launched in 2008, the project involves researchers from 75 different laboratories and companies. Sequences of rare gene variants and gene substitutions were discovered, some of which can cause disease. When diagnosing genetic diseases, it is very important to know which substitutions in gene sections cause the disease to develop. The project mapped genomes of different people , noting their coding sections, and rare nucleotide substitutions were identified. In the future, this will help doctors to diagnose complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

BRAKER1 enables scientists to work effectively with the genomes of new organisms, speeding up the process of annotating genomes and acquiring essential knowledge about life sciences.

 Explore further: Novel algorithm better assembles DNA sequences and detects genetic variation

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-01-scientists-algorithm-dna-faster-accurately.html#jCp

The African American Sequencing Project 23andMe

The African American Sequencing Project 23andMe

The African American Sequencing Project

In a move to improve diversity in genetic research, this week 23andMe will start recruiting eligible customers to participate in the creation of an African American sequencing panel for research.

With the help of a grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute, 23andMe scientists will use contributions from customers who’ve consented to participate in this research to create a reference dataset and make the de-identified genetic data available to other qualified and vetted genetic researchers at educational and research institutions around the world.

“We are very excited about this project and its potential to make a difference in people’s lives,” said the project’s Principal Investigator, Adam Auton, a 23andMe senior scientist and statistical geneticist. “This work will help address the genetic  research disparities for African Americans in particular, something that has long needed attention.”

Only a fraction of the genetic research studies done to date include people with African ancestry. According to recent data focusing on this disparity,  only about 19 percent of all published genetic research includes data from non-Europeans, and only about two percent are conducted on those of African ancestry. While the bias towards European studies reflects many complicated logistic, systemic, and societal issues, it has a huge impact on what scientists can determine about the genetics underlying diseases and other conditions that impact not just non-European populations but everyone. A recent study by the University of Maryland School deftly explains the implications of these disparities:

“As long as ancestry-related biases are not addressed, and most studies continue to predominantly sample from European populations, the genetics community will face challenges with implementation, interpretation and cost-effectiveness when treating minority populations.”

To help address these disparities, 23andMe is recruiting African American customers who are are willing to have their genome sequenced. Those who are interested would then be asked to complete an additional level of consent, that would allow 23andMe to add their de-identified genetic data to a library of genetic and phenotypic data. This means the library would not receive any personally identifiable information  connected to the genetic and phenotypic information. This library of data is managed by the NIH and used by qualified scientific researchers.

As part of this work we will ask a subset of our African American customers, who have consented to participate in research, if they would be willing to participate and have their DNA sequenced to become part of this reference panel. Reference panels are important because they allow scientists to improve the accuracy of genome wide association studies, which drive much of genetic research conducted today.

When a customer of 23andMe sends in their saliva sample, they are genotyped at hundreds of thousands of sites that are known to vary between individuals. However, there are tens of millions of variable sites in the genome that are not genotyped. By having access to a large number of fully sequenced genomes — a sequence panel — researchers are able to use “genotype imputation” to infer or predict the genotypes at these unobserved positions. Much like a code breaker filling in missing letters in a message, scientists — using algorithms and data from whole genome sequences panels — can predict, or impute, the missing letters of genetic data. Having a sequence panel like this gives researchers a tool to study conditions that are specific to African Americans.

Ultimately, the sequence panel data will be shared with the NIH, who will make it available to other researchers. This in turn will expand scientists’ ability to make genetic discoveries for African Americans and help build a broader understanding of how genetics influence diseases and traits across multiple populations.

This is the latest in a number of efforts by 23andMe to help alleviate some of the existing disparities in genetic research. Last year, 23andMe was awarded another NIH grant to use “admixture mapping” as a means to improve the detection of disease-causing genetic variants among people of African, Latino and Asian ancestry. In 2011, 23andMe launched its Roots into the Future® project to study the genetics of disease specific to African Americans. The African Genetics Project is a part of this growing effort to improve our knowledge of African genetic diversity.

 

 

The Children of Adam – National Geographics

 

 

In the name of God, “The Most Gracious”, The Dispenser of Grace”

In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, “the Lord, The Almighty, the Creator, the Maker, the Godhead

Jehovah, Yahweh, Catholic, Jew, Baptist, Methodist, Buddist and other religious groups

God is the Ruler of the Universe and creator of all life which began in Africa and spread around the world. God makes no distinction of religion, color, sexual orientation. He only and simply stated follow my teaching and I give you free will to choose me your Father or Satan.

This is a fact that lies within all of us in a special place in our DNA.

African is the beginning and the end, take your place with God.

When reviewing material for this article, I found so much hate and rejection of the scientifically validated facts. Challenges based on religious preferences without an open mind or understanding or wanting to seek validation. This is the position of some of the world today but it is changing. We are one and you are his people.

Coming soon, DNA spirituality, health, disease, relationships and mental health. I wrote a blog that came to my mind while flying to DC-Bal. So for five hours, I wrote the blog while deep in thought and prayer. It has nothing to do with Trump tweet today regarding North Korea.

I met a man in the Dollar Store today and I turn to him and I said I know you some how. He said to me I have been waiting for you. We talked a little about our father our God. He wrote down a book he wanted me to read, and we continue a discussion about our connection. Finally, he said we shall meet again and other will be coming to give you greetings. I asked his name and he just smiled. He said I know your name. As he said to me, “there is no burden too heavy or hard to that you can not bear the burden if you believe in God. This is the third experience since my transition and return to this life.

May our God bless you all and keep you safe.

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