I honestly forgot about the U.S. Federal Census-1880 Schedules of Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes. The records exposed the classification of Native Americans and African Americans simply because they did not speak proper English, jailed, or presented some handicap. I have found two ancestors listed in Wake County, NC, and Amherst, VA. These records are separate from the Federal Census Records normally reviewed.
Handwritten colonial documents provide a wealth of information. For colonists, the way a person wrote conveyed not only social status but also revealed one’s gender and occupation.
The goal of this game is to decode the explicit messages of handwritten documents. Through the game, you will learn to recognize some commonly confused letters. When you are done with this game return to the general Handwriting menu, and you can practice reading longer passages from colonial manuscripts and learn more about the implicit messages colonists were sending.
To practice identifying individual letters, begin the game and then drag the manuscript letters* on top of the print letters to which you believe they correspond. To see the answer to a single letter, hover your mouse over the letter and press SHIFT on your keyboard. To see the answers to all the letters click on SHOW ANSWERS at the top right of the screen. Click on the link below to begin!
*Manuscript letters used with permission from:
Reading early American handwriting, by Kip Sperry
Baltimore, Md. : Genealogical Pub. Co., c1998
We are one, aren’t we?
It’s About Us
African American Genealogy DNA is about bringing unity, dismantling ethnic division, separation of a human being for no real reason except learn behavior. So “Life Stories” is about we are one family of humanoids on earth. Inspiring others to create a place without restrictions or a sense of bondage by religion, color, ethnicity or other change that prohibit real communication and living.
Genetics is one path to enlightenment to understanding who we are, how we got to be, where we came from and how we became to be. In other words, the journey is from Africa and across the world. We migrated and planted the human seeds ever place on earth. Reunification of man and women.
Ancestry Circles, Gen 2.0 and Family Tree are bridging the gap, seeing the world of humans as a whole not separated. Continue to learn from each other, do not let traditional ethnicity block us from the human tree.
Click on the link to Canvas
From: Baba Gene Stephenson, President@aahgs.org
May 18, 2018
Hotep AAHGS Family,
Here we are, at this special time of the year, when we have an opportunity with confidence, to nominate persons whom we consider both worthy of acknowledging their special contributions to the genealogy and historical venues of ancestral research, and have been a representative gold mine to the community. The iconic musician Charlie “Bird” Parker mused NOW IS THE TIME, which appropriately fits the exclusivity of those nominated. Let’s not allow the time to pass us by. Let’s set if off, and get these nominations started right…quickly!
Sooo, the Afro-American Historical & Genealogical Society, Inc. (AAHGS) is currently seeking nominations for its National Awards. Only financial members of AAHGS may submit nominations. All nominations must be documented on the AAHGS Awards Nomination Form and submitted via email to Awards@aahgs.org or electronically on the 2018 Awards Online Submission Form.
See the AAHGS website under National Awards Program for additional details on the awards and for the nomination form.
Awards must be submitted no later than June 1st.
Nominations may be submitted for one or more of the following awards. However, a submitter cannot nominate the same person for multiple awards.
James Dent Walker Award
The James Dent Walker Award is the highest award that can be bestowed by AAHGS upon a person who has exhibited distinguished accomplishments through a significant and measurable contribution to the research, documentation, and/or preservation of African American history. Membership in AAHGS is not required. [Plaque, Honorary life membership, brass membership card]
Paul Edward Sluby, Sr. /Jean Sampson-Scott, Meritorious Achievement Awards
The Paul Edward Sluby, Sr. and Jean Sampson-Scott Meritorious Achievement Awards are the second highest awards that can be bestowed by AAHGS upon an organization(s) or person(s) who has exhibited distinguished performance through a significant and measurable contribution to African American history and/or genealogy within the past two years. No more than two awards in this category will be given annually. Membership in AAHGS is not required. [Plaque]
Marsha M. Greenlee, History Award
The Marsha M. Greenlee History Award is presented to a person or group for outstanding and measurable achievements in the field of African American history (e.g., history, anthropology, etc). The nomination will be judged on scholarship, presentation and originality. This nomination should result from publication of a book, dissertation, or other manuscript produced by the recipient. Only members of AAHGS and affiliated groups are eligible for this award. [Plaque]
Distinguished National Service Award
The Distinguished National Service Award recognizes an AAHGS member who has provided extraordinary, dedicated service of direct benefit to the AAHGS organization at the national level. Such service may be for a single act or for continuing service, which far exceeds expectations in AAHGS national leadership in achieving the goals of the organization. [Plaque, Honorary life membership]
Elizabeth Clark-Lewis, Genealogy Award
The Elizabeth Clark-Lewis Genealogy Award is presented to a person for original research in support of African American genealogy. The nomination will be judged on scholarly and original research and must document the genealogy of African American ancestors. Only members of AAHGS and affiliated groups are eligible for this award. [Plaque]
Chapter of the Year Award
This award is bestowed on an AAHGS chapter who has made outstanding contributions to the AAHGS mission to preserve African American history and genealogy through sponsorship of quality chapter programs, activities, and services over the past year. This award is not necessarily presented each year. [Plaque]
The On-The-Spot Award is presented to a Chapter member for a recent, specific, measurable accomplishment, which impacts or contributes to AAHGS mission and goals. Only financial members of AAHGS chapters are eligible for this award. [Payment of AAHGS national membership dues for the next calendar year]
The Certificate of Appreciation
The Certificate of Appreciation is presented to an individual or team who has made a contribution to AAHGS or its principles and deserves a token of thanks. The Certificate will result from an act(s) performed within two years of its presentation. Membership in AAHGS is not required.
AAHGS President’s Award
The AAHGS President’s Award is presented to a member who has rendered outstanding Service to AAHGS for a minimum of five (5) years at a personal sacrifice of time. This nominee has, in addition, contributed immeasurably to the Society’s growth and well-being. Such service may be for a single continuing activity, or for a variety of activities.The President alone is the sole selector of the recipient of this award. [Plaque, Honorary life membership]
At Ancestry, your privacy is a top priority. Ancestry is committed to being a good steward of your Personal Information, handling it in a responsible manner, and securing it with administrative, technical, and physical safeguards.
We also believe in being honest, direct and transparent when it comes to your data. Ancestry follows three guiding principles when it comes to your privacy:
- Transparency. We work hard to be transparent about what Personal Information we collect and process.
- Simplicity. We try to use easy-to-understand language to describe our privacy practices to help you make informed choices.
- Control. We give you control over the Personal Information you provide to us, including your DNA Data, and how it is used, shared, and retained.
Other Important Things for You to Understand When You Use Our Services
You always maintain ownership of your DNA and DNA Data—you can manage and delete it as described in this Statement.
You may discover unexpected facts about yourself or your family when using our services. Once discoveries are made, we can’t undo them.
When you make new discoveries with us, you should feel confident and informed about how we use your Personal Information. Our full Privacy Statement is below and we encourage you to read it.
Effective Date: April 30, 2018
2. Account Creation and Your Engagement with Ancestry Services
The Personal Information required to create a basic Ancestry account is only your name, an email address, and a password. Access to Ancestry records to help you build a family tree, or to our DNA features (ethnicity estimate, etc.) requires additional personal information, including payment details, and, for the DNA test, the test code (when you activate your DNA test kit) and a saliva sample from which we can extract Genetic Information.
Account creation also requires you to agree to the Ancestry Terms and Conditions and this Privacy Statement by clicking “Continue” on the account creation page.
By clicking “Continue,” you are telling us that you consent to Ancestry collecting, processing, and sharing your Personal Information (including your Genetic Information if you have taken the AncestryDNA test) as described in this Privacy Statement and in any other documents referenced in this Privacy Statement.
At any time, you can request Ancestry delete information you have uploaded into your account, such as a family tree or your Genetic Information. Please see Section 10 for specific details about deleting your data.
If you no longer wish to have an Ancestry account, please contact us here and we will help you close your account.
3. What Information Does Ancestry Collect From You?
The table below describes the information we collect from you to provide the Services. In this Privacy Statement, we refer to this as your “Personal Information.”
|Information category||Use Description|
|Credit Card/Payment Information||
|DNA Kit Activation Information||When you activate a DNA test kit, we collect
|User Provided Content||
|Social Media Information||If you use Facebook to log into Ancestry Services, we collect information from your Facebook profile that you choose to provide to us (for example your Facebook profile information).|
|Additional User Information||Information that you provide to us when you answer email surveys or online questionnaires offered through the Services.|
|Your Communications||Your 1:1 communications with other Ancestry users through our communications features, as well as information you provide in communications with Ancestry Member Services.|
|Contests and Promotions||Personal Information when you voluntarily participate in contests and special promotions we run through our Services.|
4. What Information Does Ancestry Collect Through Your Use of the Services?
|Information category||Use Description|
|Computer and Mobile Device Information||Information about how you access our Services, including the website you visited before and after Ancestry’s site.
The Internet protocol (“IP”) address of your computer, mobile device, or the proxy server that you use to access the Internet, in addition to other technical information, such as:
|Information shared through social media features||If you interact with social media through the Services, for example “Like,” “Tweet,” “Pin,” or “Follow Us” links to sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, and YouTube, Ancestry will collect these interactions and whatever account information these services make available to us.
Your interactions with these features are governed by the privacy statement of the applicable third party company.
|Information from your use of the Services||Information about your use of the Services, such as when you search or access records or public family trees, which pages you view or links you click on, or when you add people to your tree, etc.|
5. Information We Collect From Other Sources
|Information category||Use Description|
|Information from Public and Historical Records||Ancestry collects records from various sources, usually from official record sources, including newspapers, as well as birth, death, and marriage records, which may contain Personal Information relating to you. These records are generally part of Ancestry’s subscription Services.|
|Information from Third Parties||We may also receive information about you from third parties. For example, we may supplement the data we collect with demographic information licensed from third parties in order to personalize the Services and our offers to you.
If you purchase a gift subscription, we will collect Personal Information to complete the gift and notify the recipient.
6. How does Ancestry use your Personal Information?
|Information category||Use Description|
|Personal Information (generally)||We use your Personal Information to provide, personalize, improve, update and expand our Services. This includes:
|Communications||We use your Personal Information to communicate with you about the Services, such as when we:
|Genetic Information||Ancestry uses your Genetic Information for the following primary purposes:
We will seek additional consent from you before we collect and process additional sensitive Personal Information (for example, health history) as part of your interaction with the Services.
7. When Do We Share Your Information and Who are the Recipients?
Ancestry does not share your individual Personal Information (including your Genetic Information) with third-parties without your additional consent other than as described in this Privacy Statement. In particular, we will not share your Genetic Information with insurance companies, employers, or third-party marketers without your express consent. The circumstances described below explain when sharing might occur:
|People with whom your Information may be shared / Circumstances in which sharing might occur||Description|
|Other Ancestry Users or others you may choose to share with||Any information you add to your Ancestry profile may be seen by other Ancestry users, as will public family tree details (we do not show living people in your tree to other users without your permission), and DNA matches (when you choose to see and be seen by your DNA matches).
If you share details of your family history or DNA experience outside the Services, you do so at your own risk.
|Service Providers||We use other companies to help us provide the Services to you. As a result, these partner companies will have some of your information in their systems. Our partners are subject to contractual obligations governing data security and confidentiality consistent with this Privacy Statement and applicable laws.
These processing partners include our:
|Research Partners||We share your Genetic Information with research partners only when you provide us with your express consent to do so through our Informed Consent to Research.Research partners may include commercial or non-profit organizations that conduct or support scientific research, the development of therapeutics, medical devices or related material to treat, diagnose or predict health conditions. In some circumstances, a research partner or Ancestry may have a financial interest in the research arrangement. A list of our research partners can be found here.|
|Legal or Regulatory Process||We may share your Personal Information if we believe it is reasonably necessary to:
If we are compelled to disclose your Personal Information to law enforcement, we will do our best to provide you with advance notice, unless we are prohibited under the law from doing so. In the interest of transparency, Ancestry produces a Transparency Report where we list the number of valid law enforcement requests for user data across all our sites.
|If Ancestry is Acquired||If Ancestry or its businesses are acquired or transferred (including in connection with bankruptcy or similar proceedings), we will share your Personal Information with the acquiring or receiving entity. The promises in this Privacy Statement will continue to apply to your Personal Information that is transferred to the new entity.|
|A note about aggregated data||Ancestry may disclose user information in an aggregated form as part of the Services or our marketing, or in scientific publications published by us or our research partners. For example, we might note the percentage of immigrants in a State that are from a particular geographic region or country. Such disclosure will never include Personal Information.|
Subject to certain exceptions, you have a right to request access to your Personal Information and to be provided with a copy of certain information you provided in a portable form, as well as to seek to update, delete or correct this information by using the tools described below or by contacting Ancestry. Details and options for accessing this information are listed below.
|Ancestry||You can access and update the Personal Information (such as your email address, username, profile information, etc.) that you provide to Ancestry at any time in the following sections of the privacy settings:
To learn how to manage the privacy settings for any family trees you have created on Ancestry, you can click here.
|Related Brands||Ancestry strives to make it simple for you to manage your privacy across the Services. You can manage your privacy settings for our related brands by clicking on the following links:|
|Mobile||You can also control your information using the settings available in Ancestry’s mobile applications, such as the Ancestry, AncestryDNA or “We’re Related” apps.|
|Family Tree Information Download||Ancestry allows you to download your family tree information in the standard GEDCOM family tree file format in your Family Tree Settings.|
|Genetic Information Download||Your DNA Data belongs to you. You always have the option of downloading a file with your DNA Data. Learn how here. For more information on what is included in your DNA Data download, go here.|
9. What are Ancestry’s retention practices?
Ancestry services are fundamentally premised on the notion that the personal voyage of self-discovery is not a one-time event and continues over lengthy periods of time—possibly lifetimes. Additionally, and with particular regard to our subscribers and DNA customers who pay fees or purchase subscriptions, the ongoing enhancement of Ancestry’s historical records and DNA features provide benefits and insights to our users over time. As a result, Ancestry’s retention practices reflect this ongoing value by retaining user accounts on our system until our users inform us of their desire delete to their data or close their accounts.
|Category of Information||Retention Period|
|Account||Ancestry will retain the Personal Information you provide while creating your account until such time as you ask us to close it.|
|Family Tree||Due to the multi-generational significance of family trees, Ancestry will retain your family tree data as needed to provide you with continuous access, updated features, and the ability to enhance your family tree.|
|DNA||Ancestry retains your DNA data as needed to provide you with the features and functionality you purchased (or were gifted), including continuously updated features such as DNA matches, increasingly granular ethnicity estimates and improved origins/migration details, as well as new other features based on your DNA data.|
|Related Brands||Ancestry’s related brands (Fold3, Newspapers.com,etc.) have their own account logins and will retain your account as needed to provide you with continuous and updated Services. You can delete these accounts at any time.|
|Usage Information||In some cases we choose to retain usage information (e.g., visits to sites) in a depersonalized or aggregated form. Once aggregated, this information ceases to be personal and will not be subject to Ancestry user deletion requests.|
You can delete your Personal Information from Ancestry in a number of ways.
|Information Category||How to delete|
|Personal Information||You can delete your Personal Information from Ancestry in a number of ways through the settings linked above.
If you require assistance deleting Personal Information you provided as part of your profile or subscription or from our blog or community forum, please submit a deletion request (including the exact wording of the information as it appears on the websites, and the URL where that information is found) to our Member Services team.
To the extent you have shared information through the Services (for example, by making your family trees public, or by sharing your DNA Results directly with other users), Ancestry will not be able to remove any copies of information that other Ancestry members may have retained.
Ancestry may hold records that contain your Personal Information that we are obligated to maintain as archives. Please direct any request to remove information from linked archival records to the responsible archival entity.
We will consider requests for removal of Personal Information from the searchable indexes of the records we hold on a case-by-case basis in accordance with law.
Some of your Personal Information may be included in other Ancestry members’ family trees, which will only be removed if the other Ancestry member deletes it.
|Genetic||Note: If you request that Ancestry delete your DNA Data, we will delete all Genetic Information, including any derivative Genetic Information (ethnicity estimates, genetic relative matches, etc.) from our production, development, analytics, and research systems within 30 days.To request the destruction of your biological samples, you must contact Member Services. Please note that if you have agreed to our Informed Consent to Research, we will not be able to remove your Genetic Information from active or completed research projects, but we will not use it for any new research projects.|
|General||Please note that there may be some latency in deleting your Personal Information from our backup systems after it has been deleted from our production, development, analytics, and research systems. Also, our laboratory partners may retain information they receive from us in order to comply with laws or regulations that may require them to do so, such as the Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments regulations administered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Ancestry may also retain certain information as reasonably necessary to comply with our legal obligations (including law enforcement requests), resolve disputes, maintain security, prevent fraud and abuse, as well as to comply with tax, payment industry, securities, and clinical regulatory compliance requirements.|
Ancestry maintains a comprehensive information security program designed to protect our customers’ Personal Information using administrative, physical, and technical safeguards.
The specific security measures used are based on the sensitivity of the Personal Information collected. We have measures in place to protect against inappropriate access, loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information (including Genetic Information) under our control.
Ancestry’s Security Team regularly reviews our security and privacy practices and enhances them as necessary to help ensure the integrity of our systems and your Personal Information.
We use secure server software to encrypt Personal Information (including Genetic Information), and we only partner with security companies that meet and commit to our security standards.While we cannot guarantee that loss, misuse or alteration of data will not occur, we use reasonable efforts to prevent this.
It is also important for you to guard against unauthorized access to your Personal Information by maintaining strong passwords and protecting against the unauthorized use of your own computer or device.
12. Data Transfer
Any transfer of your Personal and Genetic Information between Ancestry’s Ireland-based company and Ancestry’s U.S.-based company for processing in the United States is conducted pursuant to established transfer mechanisms such as Standard Contractual.
You can request a copy of any standard contractual clauses relating to your Personal Information that we may have executed by contacting us using the details below.
13. Changes to this Statement
We may modify this Privacy Statement at any time, but we will provide prominent advance notice of any material changes to this Statement, such as posting a notice through the Services, on our websites, or sending you an email, to provide you the opportunity to review the changes and choose whether to continue using the Services.
We will also notify you of non-material changes to this Statement as of their effective date by posting a notice through the Services, on our websites, or sending you an email. Your continued use of our Services after notice of non-material changes means that you consent to the updated Privacy Statement.
If you object to any changes, you may delete your account by contacting us here.
14. California’s Shine the Light Law
California Civil Code Section 1798.83, known as the “Shine the Light” law, permits Users who are California residents to request and obtain from us a list of what Personal Information (if any) we disclosed to third parties for their direct marketing purposes in the preceding calendar year and the names and addresses of those third parties. Requests may be made only once a year and are free of charge. Under Section 1798.83, Ancestry currently does not share any Personal Information with third parties for their own direct marketing purposes.
15. Legal basis under EU General Data Protection Regulation for processing personal information of EU residents.
Where you have consented to data processing, your consent provides the legal basis to process your Personal Information. We rely on your explicit consent to process your Genetic Information. You have the right to withdraw consent at any time. Please note that your withdrawal of consent to collect and process your Personal Information will not affect the lawfulness of processing your Personal Information based on your consent before you withdrew your consent.
We may also process your Personal Information on the basis of contractual necessity to perform a contract we have with you. For example, we process your credit card details when you provide them in order to use our Services or purchase access to premium features such as our DNA testing services.
We may also process your Personal Information on the basis of our legitimate interests, including in providing and improving the Services. For example, Ancestry has a legitimate interest in understanding your login history so we can assess your interaction with our Services. We also have a legitimate interest in providing and developing interesting features to provide to our users. We use your Personal Information to keep our Services safe and secure and we do so as it necessary to pursue your and our legitimate interests in ensuring that our Services are secure, and to protect against fraud, spam and abuse.
Where we rely on legitimate interests to process your Personal Information, you have the right to object to such processing (meaning that you can ask us to stop). You can use your Privacy Settings to control certain ways in which we process your data. You can also contact us, using the details below, to object to other forms of processing.
16. Identity and Contact Details of the Data
If you reside in the United States, Ancestry.com Operations Inc. and Ancestry.com DNA, LLC are responsible for the use of your data and for responding to any requests related to your Personal Information.
If you reside outside the United States, Ancestry Ireland Unlimited Company is your data controller.
Contact information for these entities is listed at the bottom of this Statement.
Users outside of the United States may contact the Irish Data Protection Commission, or your local Data Protection Authority.
Contact Details of the
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Official correspondence must be sent via postal mail to:
|For members located in the United States||For members located outside of the United States|
|Ancestry.com Operations Inc.
Attn: Privacy Office
|Ancestry Ireland Unlimited Company
Attn: Privacy Office
Source: Findmypast https://www.findmypast.com/content/privacy-policy?utm_source=fmp&utm_medium=email&utm_content=1077535-B-12-A&utm_campaign=service
Effective May 25, 2018
Your privacy is a top priority for Findmypast. We are dedicated to looking after your Personal Information in a way you feel is 100% safe and secure, handling it in a responsible manner and complying with data protection laws. When it comes to your privacy, we follow 3 main principles:
Transparent. We want to be transparent about the personal information we collect, why we collect it and how we process it.
Control. We give you control over the Personal Information you provide to us. We let you choose how and when it is used, shared, kept or deleted.
Our full Privacy Statement is below and we suggest you take the time to read and understand it.
This policy includes:
- 1. About us
- 2. Information we collect
- 3. How we use the information
- 4. What if I don’t provide some or all of the information requested?
- 5. What grounds (legal basis) are we processing the data under?
- 6. Information stored on your family tree
- 7. Record matching
- 8. Sharing your information with third parties
- 9. Sale of the Business
- 10. Cookies
- 11. How we protect your data
- 12. Your rights regarding your personal information
- 13. Right of complaint to the Regulator for Data Protection
- 14. How long we hold your data
- 15. Links to third-party websites
- 17. Contacting us
1. About Us
This website http://www.findmypast.com is owned and operated by Findmypast Limited (FMP), a company registered in England and Wales no. 04369607, having its registered offices at The Glebe, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London, EC2A 3DQ.
FMP is committed to protecting your privacy and maintaining the security of any personal information received from you. We strictly adhere to the requirements of the data protection legislation in the UK and we are registered on the Data Protection Public Register number Z6639808. Our Data Protection Officer will be happy to deal with any queries or requests regarding the data we hold about you. They can be contacted at email@example.com or by post to Data Protection Officer, The Glebe, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London, EC2A 3DQ.
2. Information we collect
Information we collect about you
When you register on our website or place an order, we collect your name and email address. This allows us to process your registration, fulfil your order and send you important service messages.
Sometimes, we may ask you to provide other contact details, such as phone number or address, to carry out our surveys. You will always be given the option to withhold these contact details at the time you complete the survey.
We do collect some information from cookies, pixels and similar software which allows us to understand how you arrive on our websites, how you use and navigate around them, and how you interact with our email. This information is used to improve our services and communication. We obtain some information from Google Analytics and Facebook. The Facebook information provided is limited to your email address and only that which you have previously agreed with Facebook that they can share.
In order to purchase a subscription or credits for Findmypast you must be over 18 years old. More information about our age restrictions can be found in our terms and conditions.
Information you provide to us
If you create a family tree or create content on the website, we also collect that information, which may include personal information about you and other people (for example, names and birthdays of people in your family). You should ensure, if you provide personal information about people in your family who are living and not deceased, that you have the consent from the relevant individual to include that personal information on the website.
We do not collect sensitive information (also known as special categories of information) about you except when you specifically knowingly provide it and have consented to this. Examples are adding your religious belief to a family tree. More details about the privacy of the family tree are available below.
3. How we use the information
We will use your personal information for a number of purposes including
- To manage the website (including your account);
- To provide you with a free trial (if requested);
- To process orders and provide our services, goods or online content, to provide you with information about them and to deal with your requests and queries.
- For administration purposes. This means we may contact you regarding goods or services ordered or online content you have signed up for, to let you know that a service or online site has been suspended for maintenance, if your subscription is about to expire to ask if you wish to renew it, or if an online account has become dormant to ask if you wish to retain the account before we close it.
- To provide advanced website features to you and others.
- We use IP addresses and device identifiers to identify the location of users, to establish the number of visits from different countries, to limit/cap adverts of a certain type, and to personalise content and emails.
- For analysis and research to improve our services and goods offered.
- To improve your search results.
- A certain amount of advertising is tailored to the individual based on viewing and/or purchase habits. This is a common practice known as online behavioural advertising.
- We may show you relevant advertising on third party sites (e.g. Facebook, Google, and Twitter). Some third party sites allow you to request not to see messages from specific advertisers.
- To conduct surveys with you (where you have consented to us contacting you for such purpose).
- To provide personalised communications (more details below).
- Where we provide personalised services, we may analyse the information you supply, as well as your activity on our (and other) services, so we can offer a more relevant, tailored service.
- We may use and disclose information in aggregate (so no individuals are identified) for marketing and strategic development purposes.
We send service emails to you to administer the service. Service emails include registration and payment confirmations and emails that provide useful information about how to use a service or feature when you sign up or start using it. We will also send you a service email if we make a fundamental change to the website, or to our terms & conditions that we think we need to make you aware of, or to let you know important information about your account.
We use your email address to update you on new products, services and subscription offers. We will only contact you with your consent. You are entitled to withhold this consent and refrain from receiving such communications by selecting the appropriate option on the web form that collects your details. You can also update these options at any time by logging into your account and adjusting your preferences, by contacting us by email at firstname.lastname@example.org, by calling +44 (0)20 3326 6300 [UK, IE, AU] / +1 (855) 246-8234 [US] or by post to Findmypast, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London EC2A 3DQ. We will always provide you with a way of opting out of receiving future marketing messages from us each time we send them to you.
4. What if I don’t provide some or all of the information requested?
The impact of this will depend on what information you withhold, but the main impacts may be:
- We will not be able to process or fully process your order.
- We will not be able to contact you to let you know of problems regarding your order or the goods/services provided.
- We will not be able to respond fully to requests and queries you may have.
- We cannot personalise the service you receive. So, if you are online you will have to search more for the content type you normally view or for similar/related products.
- We won’t be able to limit online adverts to products or services you have shown interest in and so you may receive adverts that are not related to your interests.
5. What grounds (legal basis) are we processing the data under?
There are a number of grounds we process your data under. These are:
- Contractual – we need the information to perform the contract for goods or services you have requested/ordered including payment, delivery etc.
- Legal – should we be legally required to contact you concerning a purchase or service.
- Legitimate interest – this means the processing is in Findmypast’s interest. It allows us to manage the customer relationship effectively and efficiently and improve the goods and/or services we provide by better understanding how our online provisions are used and which goods are popular with which groups of individuals.
- Consent – where you have given us consent to market to you.
6. Information stored in your family tree
Family names that are included in your family tree may be searchable by users of the website (and users of other websites) and may appear on internet searches. The information stored on your tree will not be viewable by other users unless you give explicit permission by making your tree public.
We provide you with privacy controls to manage your family tree and control who can see the information in it. You should familiarise yourself with how these controls work as you are responsible for using them to protect the information you have provided. We reserve the right (at our own discretion) to remove any personal data which you have included in your family tree about people who are living if we are alerted to the fact that this personal data was used without that person’s permission.
If you become aware that your personal information has been included in somebody else’s tree without your permission or is being misused in any other way on the website, please send an email to our Customer Support team email@example.com with details and we will investigate and, if necessary, remove this information.
7. Record matching
Findmypast uses record matching technologies to suggest possible matches between historical records on Findmypast and associated partner trees on Family Historian or Roots Magic.
Record matching on Findmypast automatically matches historical records for your family tree. These records are pulled from our vast records database Record matching will save you time with your research and allow you to make fascinating discoveries through historical records such as birth, marriage and death documents and census records. Our historical records are gathered from a number of key partners around the world. More information about our record partners is available on Our Partners page.
When record matching is enabled within partner sites such as Family Historian, Roots Magic, or other Desktop Software partners, information from small parts of your family tree is passed between the sites without you having to do anything, to a matching service on the Findmypast website. This information includes basic information such as names, dates and places associated with individuals and their close relatives. Findmypast uses this data to find accurate matches for relevant individuals. The matching service provides partner site users with suggested matches of ancestors’ birth, marriage, and death records. We will also provide matches for census records. As a Findmypast customer, you can then add these records to your tree. The service will match against living relatives.
Please note this information is not retained by Findmypast and is deleted automatically after matches are calculated and displayed to you. Only partner site users receive Findmypast hints. Findmypast users do not receive hints about trees on the partner site.
The partner site will show matches in its search window where matches are found. To find out more about these matches, follow the links provided and review them. You will then be able to accept or reject matches. Please note that some matches can be viewed and confirmed for free, while others require a Findmypast data subscription. In order to review these matches, you will need to subscribe to Findmypast and create an account.
The information passed to Findmypast is never used for any other purpose and will never be displayed, sold, licensed or used in any manner whatsoever. If you have any question or concerns, you can email firstname.lastname@example.org or call Customer Support on +44(0)20 3326 6300 [UK, IE, AU] +1 (855) 246-8234 [US]
8. Sharing your information with third parties
We may from time to time provide your personal information to third parties for the purposes of providing you with our services. These third-party providers include payment processors, providers of card validation services, and credit referencing providers. This is necessary for the performance of the contract. We do not keep a record of your credit or debit card details in our systems. Our payment processors do not decide what is done with your data and only process it on our behalf. These third parties may be located outside the European Economic Area; however, we only use providers that provide adequate protection for your information at all times.
When transferring and storing any personal information outside the EEA we only do so under one of the legally recognised transfer mechanisms for ensuring the data is safeguarded. These are:
- The country in question has been deemed safe for data transfer by the European Commission. Also known as an adequacy finding.
- The contract for data processing contains the standard contractual clauses laid down by the European Commission to safeguard the transfer of personal data.
- Binding corporate rules – this is where a large company’s own internal processes for international data transfer have been signed off and agreed by the European Commission as safeguarding the data.
- If the data is going to the USA it can be safely transferred to a company that is certified under the EU-US Privacy Shield.
- Appropriate certification schemes
We will disclose your personal data in order to comply with any legal obligation. This includes disclosing information to organisations for the purposes of fraud protection, credit risk reduction, or the order of a court or regulator.
We also share your details with service providers who assist us with hosting our marketing campaigns and surveys but only in cases where you have consented to marketing or surveys. We will not provide your data to other third parties for marketing purposes unless you have specifically consented to this when you first provided your data to us. You are entitled to decline to receive such third-party communications by not selecting the appropriate box on the web form that collects your details or at any subsequent time by logging into your account and adjusting your preferences, by contacting us by email at email@example.com or by post to Findmypast, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London EC2A 3DQ.
9. Sale of the Business
In the event that we undergo re-organisation or are sold to a third party, you agree that any personal information we hold about you may be transferred to that re-organised entity or third party.
We do collect some information from cookies and similar software that allows us to understand how you arrive on our websites and use and navigate around them so we can improve the sites. We obtain some information from Google Analytics and Facebook. The Facebook information provided is limited to your email address and only that which you have previously agreed with Facebook that they can share.
11. How we protect your information
We follow strict security procedures in the storage and disclosure of information which you have given us, to prevent unauthorised access to, and loss, misuse or alteration of your personal information in accordance with UK data protection legislation. These include firewalls and virus-checking procedures.
You are responsible for keeping secret any confidential passwords or other login or access details that you select or which we allocate to you. While we take steps to ensure the security of your information, there is a risk that any information transmitted over the Internet and stored on a computer may be intercepted or accessed by an unauthorised party. If you think that someone has accessed your information held by us without your permission or gained unauthorised access to your login details, you must notify us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
We also recommend that if you use a shared computer or a computer in a public place such as a library that you close your browser when you have finished your session.
12. Your rights regarding your Personal Information
Under the Data Protection law, you have a number of rights with respect to your personal information, which are:
- Correcting your Information
You are entitled to have your personal information updated to ensure it is up to date and accurate. In order to maintain the accuracy of the information we hold, you can update your personal details through your ‘My Account’ page or by sending us an email to email@example.com.
- Withdrawing Consent
You have the right to withdraw your consent to any processing that is currently being done under your consent, such as marketing. Consent can be withdrawn by updating your preferences in the email preference centre or through ‘My Account’. You can also email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Obtaining a copy of your Information
You have the right to receive a copy of the personal information we hold about you. You can do this by contacting email@example.com from the email address attached to your account, providing the full name attached to your account.
- Deleting your information
You can request that we delete personal information in certain circumstances. These will be specific to each case. You can do this by contacting firstname.lastname@example.org from the email address attached to your account, providing the full name attached to your account.
- Data Portability
You have the right to ask us to transfer the personal information that you have given us to another controller.
- Restricting Processing
You can request a restriction on the processing of your data in some limited circumstances. Examples are concerns over data accuracy or we no longer need to hold your data but you have requested its retention by us to aid you in a legal matter. You can do this by contacting email@example.com from the email address attached to your account, providing the full name attached to your account.
- Right to object to Processing
- You have the right to request that we stop processing your data for marketing purposes and in other limited circumstances such as asking us not to process your data by wholly automated means or not to analyse your information for targeted content etc. (also known as profiling).You can action any of these rights by contacting our Customer Support Team or by contacting us by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by post to Data Protection Officer, Findmypast, 6 Chapel Place, Rivington Street, London EC2A 3DQ.
13. Right of complaint to the Regulator for Data Protection
The data protection laws in the UK are regulated and enforced by the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO). Each individual has the right to raise a concern/complaint to the ICO if they have any concerns about how their personal information and/or privacy is treated. You can do this via the ICO’s website, follow the links or have an online Live Chat.
Call the ICO helpline on 0303 123 1113
Postal address: Information Commissioner’s Office
14. How long we hold your data for
Some of the information you provide to us will be necessary to carry out repeated tasks, such as verifying your identity or payment details when signing in to use an account, providing our services to you or when you are using an online checkout. We will keep this information for as long as you remain a registered user of any of our sites and for so long as reasonably necessary. After this time, we may need to hold your personal data in order to meet our financial obligations or identify or resolve issues or causes of action. If your account is inactive for more than five years and you are no longer paying for a service, we reserve the right to delete any information you have provided to us, including all information in your family tree. We will send an email to the address attached to your account before deleting the information in your family tree.
15. Links to third-party websites
16. Updates to this policy
We may update this policy at any time without notice. We will tell you that we have updated the policy by emailing you at the email address you have provided to us and/or by posting an announcement on the website. By continuing to use the website after we have emailed you or posted a notice informing you of an update, you accept the changes to this Policy.
Privacy statement last updated 8 May 2018.
17. Contacting us
If you have any questions about privacy or wish to update your details or have them removed from our mailing list at any time, please contact us at:
Phone: +44 (0)20 3326 6300 [UK, IE, AU] / +1 (855) 246-8234 [US]
Post: Data Protection Officer
6 Chapel Place
London EC2A 3DQ
What powers the body’s powerhouses?
Who would have thought that the remnants of an ancient bacterial infection would still be affecting us today? Nearly two billion years ago, our very distant ancestors—then just tiny unicellular organisms—became infected by a bacterium. After eons of coevolution, the bacteria has morphed into what we now know as mitochondria. They’ve long since lost their independence, but they still retain vestiges of their individuality. They even have their own DNA that’s separate from the rest of your genome! In order to maintain this independent DNA, the mitochondria have to be able to replicate it and pass it on when new mitochondria are forming. To do this, they call upon the POLG gene.
Mitochondria are in nearly every cell of your body. Functionally, you can think of them like little organs inside your cells, which is why scientists classify them as organelles. They’re sometimes called the “powerhouses” of the cells, owing to their role in producing energy. Sugars and other nutrients have a lot of energy stored in their chemical bonds. Mitochondria strip metabolites of their energy and repackage it in the form of ATP and other similarly energetic molecules. ATP is then sent throughout the cell where it helps drive various important processes.
The fact that mitochondria can pump out large amounts of energy makes them a hot commodity for cell types that need a lot of energy. Cells like neurons or the muscle cells controlling your eyelids require lots of energy because they’re constantly active and burning through ATP. Aside from differences among cell types, the amount of mitochondria in a cell can vary throughout time based on environmental conditions.1,2 A good example is exercise: We know that prolonged exercise can stimulate muscle cells to produce more mitochondria that will then help them meet their future energy needs. Like your cells, mitochondria can duplicate themselves to make more in a process called mitochondrial biogenesis.1,2 For the new mitochondria to function, however, they need instructions for how to build the energy-producing machinery.1
In the mitochondrial DNA of each cell, there are approx 16,500 base pairs made from the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. Within this code are 37 genes that collectively help the mitochondria build their energy producing pipeline. But these 37 genes don’t directly help mitochondria replicate themselves—they need almost 1,500 different genes for that. These genes are found in the rest of your DNA and are responsible for exporting their protein products to the mitochondria.
One of these genes is polymerase gamma (POLG). POLG produces a protein by the same name, also called POLG, which is in a class of proteins known as polymerases. These proteins are essential for replicating DNA sequences, because they bind to the existing DNA and construct a new DNA strand based on the template strand they’re bound to. There are multiple different polymerases, but only one of them can go into mitochondria—POLG. Aside from replicating the DNA, POLG has also been shown to have error-correcting functions so that it can proofread the new template it’s making.2
POLG is critical to the process of making new mitochondria and, in turn, is critical to human health. Highlighting this point are the nearly 300 different variants in this gene that are known to cause disease. Many of these variants alter POLG’s protein structure in a way that reduces its ability to either interact with the DNA or proofread the new duplicate DNA strand, which can result in an increased mutation rate within the mitochondrial DNA and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis. On a physiological scale, this affects organs and tissues that are reliant on mitochondrial energy production such as the nervous system, eyes, muscles, kidneys, pancreas, and male reproductive organs. The penetrance and expressivity of these symptoms are wide-ranging and depend on many factors that aren’t entirely understood, but ongoing research is aiming to characterize how changes in our DNA—including the mitochondrial DNA—can lead to disease development.1,2
The mitochondria is no longer a bacteria, but it’s evolved to be an integral part of human physiology. Thanks to genes like POLG, mitochondria are able to hold onto their DNA and a small portion of their independence.
1Jornayvaz, François R., and Gerald I. Shulman. “Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.” Essays in biochemistry 47 (2010): 10.1042/bse0470069. PMC. Web. 7 May 2018.2Young, Matthew J., and William C. Copeland. “Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication Machinery and Disease.” Current opinion in genetics & development 38 (2016): 52–62. PMC. Web. 8 May 2018.