African Royal DNA Project

How to Check Genesis.Gedmatch.com for African Royal DNA Project Matches

October 11, 2017

Note: Any problems understanding to procedures or questions please directed to me or RoyalDNA@DNATestedAfricans.org

*Great website with a ton of information, highly recommended.

 

AdaEze Naja Chinyere Njoku

Here’s a workable solution to help you check to see if you match any African Royal DNA Project Kits.  Because there are so many of you, we cannot compare your DNA for you all. This is the quickest way to check for yourself to see if you match any of the kits we manage. You MUST follow these steps prior to contacting us about the potential DNA match.  This also helps YOU to learn how too use the FREE tools.  

PLEASE REMEMBER THAT WE DO NOT POST GEDMATCH OR GENESIS KIT NUMBERS IN ANY SOCIAL MEDIA. SHARING THE GEDMATCH ON GENESIS NUMBERS IN ANY FORUM, WILL RESULTS IN PERMANENT REMOVAL FOR ALL GROUPS AND PROGRAMS.  PRIVACY AND SAFETY IS MOST IMPORTANT. THIS INCLUDES FTDNA KIT #S AND ANY KIT # THAT YOU RECEIVE REGARDING YOUR ANCESTRY AND DNA UPLOADS.  When sending emails to your Gedmatch and / or Genesis matches, send one email per person.  That is their rule.  No mass emails.  If you are caught, Gedmatch may delete your data and you lose access. 

 

  • Register at this link https://genesis.gedmatch.com/ if you have not done so. If you register and get a notice that the email you are using already exists, simply log into the link with your Gedmatch.com log in credentials. (Please read the website first before making a decision to upload your DNA Raw data)

  • Upload your DNA Raw Data. It may take a day or 2 for your matches to populate.

  • If any African Royal appears on your match list, you MUST complete the one to one comparison. The CMs must be at least 7 and the SNPs must be at least 700 to be a CONFIRMED match.  Click on your Genesis kit #. You will see a list of matches. You are almost there! 

  • If you do not see them on your list, you are not a match. Their names are distinctive and includes ethnic group(s) and they will include their ethnic groups(s).

  •  If you see any of the Royals’ names there, click on the letter “A” beside their name . This will allow you to do a one to one comparison.

 

The one to one comparison will show the chromosomes that you match on .

The above image shows 4 rows of matching for Chromosome 1.  The Centimorgans (CMs) on 1 row MUST be at least 7 and the the SNPs must be 700.  You cannot add up all of them to meet this requirement

The image below shows on row 1 that this match has 47.2 CMs and 6,993 SNPs.  That means they are a legitimate match.

 

  • If the above requirements are met, copy the chromosome details that you match on and draft an email to RoyaLDNA@DNATestedAfricans.org . Paste the info in the email .  

 

  • We will then provide you with contact Info for your DNA match if they provided it to us. 

See our DNA Tested African Descendants group guidelines http://goo.gl/forms/Om5AqGGahm 

Strictly Roots!! 

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NIH Completes Atlas of Human DNA Differences That Influences Gene

For some time now I have talked about the impact of slavery in any form against any ethnic group or person has profound consequences. Impact of child abuse over a long period of time, sexual assault carries a burden that we are just beginning to understand. This article is one of those must-read articles.

NIH completes atlas of human DNA differences that influence gene expression

Sections of the genome, known as expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) work to control how genes are turned off and on. Photo credit: Darryl Leja, NHGRI
expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL)

Bethesda, Md., Wed., Oct.11, 2017 – Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have completed a detailed atlas documenting the stretches of human DNA that influence gene expression – a key way in which a person’s genome gives rise to an observable trait, like hair color or disease risk. This atlas is a critical resource for the scientific community interested in how individual genomic variation leads to biological differences, like healthy and diseased states, across human tissues and cell types.

The atlas is the culmination of work from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) Consortium, established to catalog how genomic variation influences how genes are turned off and on.

“GTEx was unique because its researchers explored how genomic variation affects the expression of genes in individual tissues, across many individuals, and even within an individual,” said Simona Volpi, Ph.D. , program director for GTEx at the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), who oversaw various parts of the project.

According to Dr. Volpi, there was previously no resource at the scale used by GTEx that enabled researchers to study how gene expression in the liver might be different than in the lung or heart, for example, and how those differences relate to the inherited genomic variation in an individual.

Researchers involved in the GTEx Consortium collected data from more than 53 different tissue types (including brain, liver and lung) from autopsy, organ donation and tissue transplant programs. These tissues came from a approximately 960 donors in total.

“GTEx depended entirely on families choosing to donate biosamples for research after the death of a loved one,” said Susan Koester, Ph.D., deputy director for the Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science and GTEx program director at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). “GTEx researchers are deeply grateful for this priceless gift.”

The project continues to house a biobank of collected tissue samples, as well as extracted DNA and RNA for future studies by independent researchers. The summary-level data are available to the public through the GTEx Portal, and the most recent release of the raw data has been submitted to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP), an archive of results from studies that investigate the genomic contributions to phenotypes (physical characteristics or disease states).

GTEx launched in 2010 and concluded in the summer of 2017. It was supported by the NIH Common Fund and administered by NHGRI, NIMH and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), all part of NIH.

As one example of how the atlas can be used, a new study published online in the journal Nature, describes the results of expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping in 44 different human tissues from 449 individuals. An eQTL is a small section of the genome that contributes to the differences in gene expression between genes and between individuals. Typically, eQTLs are identified by sequencing the genomes of genetically different individuals to determine the variation in the genome between those individuals. This is followed by determining how much each gene is being expressed. Lastly, the eQTLs are identified by establishing which specific variants are associated with differences in gene expression levels.

The authors of the study used GTEx data to catalog all known eQTLs in the human genome for the first time. As in the Nature study, GTEx data will help researchers understand the mechanisms of how genes are expressed in a variety of tissues, which will ultimately better inform our knowledge of how genes are mis-regulated in the context of disease. GTEx data can also be used to better understand the variations in gene expression that underlie differences among healthy individuals.

Although the GTEx project has officially wrapped up, plans for future work are already underway. An endeavor known as the Enhancing GTEx (eGTEx) project, which began in 2013, extends GTEx’s efforts by combining gene expression studies with additional measurements, such as protein expression. This work is being conducted on the same tissues as in the GTEx project, providing a richer resource that integrates the complexity of how our genomes function in biologically meaningful ways.

Read the studies:

Aguet et al. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues. Nature, doi:10.1038/nature24277. 2017. [Full Text]

Stranger et al. Enhancing GTEx by bridging the gaps between genotype, gene expression, and disease: The eGTEx project. Nature Genetics, DOI: 10.1038/ng.3969. 2017. [Full Text]

NHGRI is devoted to advancing health through genome research. The institute led NIH’s contribution to the Human Genome Project, which was successfully completed in 2003 ahead of schedule and under budget. Building on the foundation laid by the sequencing of the human genome, NHGRI’s work now encompasses a broad range of research aimed at expanding understanding of human biology and improving human health. In addition, a critical part of NHGRI’s mission continues to be the study of the ethical, legal and social implications of genome research. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at: www.genome.gov.

About the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH): The mission of the NIMH is to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research, paving the way for prevention, recovery and cure. For more information, visit the NIMH website.

About the National Cancer Institute (NCI): NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH’s efforts to dramatically reduce the prevalence of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at cancer.gov or call NCI’s Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER.

The NIH Common Fund encourages collaboration and supports a series of exceptionally high-impact, trans-NIH programs. Common Fund programs are designed to pursue major opportunities and gaps in biomedical research that no single NIH institute could tackle alone, but that the agency as a whole can address to make the biggest impact possible on the progress of medical research. Additional information about the NIH Common Fund can be found at http://commonfund.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

Contact

NHGRI Communications
(301) 402-0911
NHGRIPress@mail.nih.gov

Posted: October 11, 2017

IRISH SLAVE TRADE LONG AGO BUT NOT FORFOTTEN (DNA)

I finally decided to post this article after some research and review of my DNA. I am a mixture of European ancestry. To be specific my ancestor DNA indicate Ireland and Wales as home to many of my ancestor.Forced to the Caribbean, South America, and the United States as slaves. Many who want to use the term indentured servant, not quite the case. There are many records of Virginia colonial townships and counties that sold white women who were slaves or indentured servants for having children with Africans without permission of their masters, along with their children by the courts to compensate the owners. Most of these slaves ended up in the Low Country of South Carolina on rice or indigo plantations.  See Westmoreland County Court Records in colonial times for examples.

The next time you see an Irish or person from Wales, you may be looking at a cousin. I think it will help to build bridges and bring understanding, not to divide us.

IRISH SLAVE TRADE – THE FORGOTTEN “WHITE” SLAVES

They came as slaves; vast human cargo transported on tall British ships bound for the Americas. They were shipped by the hundreds of thousands and included men, women, and even the youngest of children.

Whenever they rebelled or even disobeyed an order, they were punished in the harshest ways. Slave owners would hang their human property by their hands and set their hands or feet on fire as one form of punishment. They were burned alive and had their heads placed on pikes in the marketplace as a warning to other captives.

We don’t really need to go through all of the gory details, do we? We know all too well the atrocities of the African slave trade.

But, are we talking about African slavery? King James II and Charles I also led a continued effort to enslave the Irish. Britain’s famed Oliver Cromwell furthered this practice of dehumanizing one’s next door neighbor.

The Irish slave trade began when 30,000 Irish prisoners were sold as slaves to the New World. King James I Proclamation of 1625 required Irish political prisoners be sent overseas and sold to English settlers in the West Indies. By the mid-1600s, the Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat. At that time, 70% of the total population of Montserrat were Irish slaves.

Ireland quickly became the biggest source of human livestock for English merchants. The majority of the early slaves to the New World were actually white.

From 1641 to 1652, over 500,000 Irish were killed by the English and another 300,000 were sold as slaves. Ireland’s population fell from about 1,500,000 to 600,000 in one single decade. Families were ripped apart as the British did not allow Irish dads to take their wives and children with them across the Atlantic. This led to a helpless population of homeless women and children. Britain’s solution was to auction them off as well.

During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and 14 were taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies, Virginia, and New England. In this decade, 52,000 Irish (mostly women and children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia. Another 30,000 Irish men and women were also transported and sold to the highest bidder. In 1656, Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and sold as slaves to English settlers.

Many people today will avoid calling the Irish slaves what they truly were: Slaves. They’ll come up with terms like “Indentured Servants” to describe what occurred to the Irish. However, in most cases from the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish slaves were nothing more than human cattle.

As an example, the African slave trade was just beginning during this same period. It is well recorded that African slaves, not tainted with the stain of the hated Catholic theology and more expensive to purchase, were often treated far better than their Irish counterparts.

African slaves were very expensive during the late 1600s (50 Sterling). Irish slaves came cheap (no more than 5 Sterling). If a planter whipped or branded or beat an Irish slave to death, it was never a crime. A death was a monetary setback, but far cheaper than killing a more expensive African. The English masters quickly began breeding the Irish women for both their own personal pleasure and for greater profit. Children of slaves were themselves slaves, which increased the size of the master’s free workforce. Even if an Irish woman somehow obtained her freedom, her kids would remain slaves of her master. Thus, Irish moms, even with this new found emancipation, would seldom abandon their kids and would remain in servitude.

In time, the English thought of a better way to use these women (in many cases, girls as young as 12) to increase their market share: The settlers began to breed Irish women and girls with African men to produce slaves with a distinct complexion. These new “mulatto” slaves brought a higher price than Irish livestock and, likewise, enabled the settlers to save money rather than purchase new African slaves. This practice of interbreeding Irish females with African men went on for several decades and was so widespread that, in 1681, legislation was passed “forbidding the practice of mating Irish slave women to African slave men for the purpose of producing slaves for sale.” In short, it was stopped only because it interfered with the profits of a large slave transport company.

England continued to ship tens of thousands of Irish slaves for more than a century. Records state that, after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America and Australia. There were horrible abuses of both African and Irish captives. One British ship even dumped 1,302 slaves into the Atlantic Ocean so that the crew would have plenty of food to eat.

There is little question that the Irish experienced the horrors of slavery as much (if not more in the 17th Century) as the Africans did. There is, also, very little question that those brown, tanned faces you witness in your travels to the West Indies are very likely a combination of African and Irish ancestry. In 1839, Britain finally decided on its own to end its participation in Satan’s highway to hell and stopped transporting slaves. While their decision did not stop pirates from doing what they desired, the new law slowly concluded THIS chapter of nightmarish Irish misery.

But, if anyone, black or white, believes that slavery was only an African experience, then they’ve got it completely wrong.

Irish slavery is a subject worth remembering, not erasing from our memories.

But, where are our public (and PRIVATE) schools???? Where are the history books? Why is it so seldom discussed?

Do the memories of hundreds of thousands of Irish victims merit more than a mention from an unknown writer?

Or is their story to be one that their English pirates intended: To (unlike the African book) have the Irish story utterly and completely disappear as if it never happened.

None of the Irish victims ever made it back to their homeland to describe their ordeal. These are the lost slaves; the ones that time and biased history books conveniently forgot.


NIH Genome September Release

New toolkit helps nurses use genomics in patient care

Nurse and doctor discuss health information related to a patient. Image Credit: Getty Images/Asiseeit
Nurse and doctor.

Nurses and other health professionals looking to integrate genomics into patient care now have access to an online toolkit with more than 100 resources, part of a new website launched by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Developed with input from clinical educators and administrators, The Method for Introducing a New Competency in Genomics (MINC) website provides resources for nursing leaders at all levels of genomics competency, ranging from basic knowledge about genomics to its practical impact on healthcare systems and policies.

The website addresses the need for healthcare professionals to stay abreast with the rapidly changing healthcare environment. Its resources can help practicing nurses care for patients undergoing genomic testing and treatments, build awareness in their communities, and understand how to prepare their workforce for emerging clinical applications.

“The MINC toolkit is a starting point for healthcare providers who want to promote genomic integration into practice to benefit their patients,” said Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Ph.D., director of the Division of Policy, Communication and Education at NHGRI. “It was designed based on the efforts of Magnet® hospital nurses whose experiences were used in the design and foundation for the toolkit.”

The toolkit is structured in a question and answer format, allowing users to tailor their interventions based on the resources that will work best for them in their unique clinical setting. A key feature of the toolkit is “Champion Stories”. These video testimonials from health administrators and educators describe how they overcame barriers as they developed the necessary genomics knowledge to offer personalized care to their patients.

MINC offers resources for providers with varying levels of experience, including:

Family Search’s New Web Tool Makes Ancestry Records Easier to Find

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Why Indexing Matters

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FamilySearch International, a leader in historical records preservation, has launched its new web-based indexing tool. Indexing is a technology used to make the world’s historical records freely searchable online for family history research. The new program makes it easier for online volunteers to participate using web-enabled computers, laptops, or tablets, and enables FamilySearch to expedite its online publishing of completed indexes.

New features enable volunteers to work on tablets, modify the layout of their dashboard based on personal preferences, set and track individual goals, and create groups with friends or others interested in working on a common project.

Global nonprofit FamilySearch digitally preserves billions of historical records online to help individuals with their family history research. It has published billions of images of historic records from all over the world online. Researchers can find the record images in FamilySearch’s Catalog or Historic Records Collections online. But searching through billions of images online in search of one’s elusive ancestors is not fun for the average person. They want to type in an ancestor’s name and known context, press Enter, and voilà, see highly matched results from their search query.

“That requires an index,” said Jim Ericson, marketing manager for FamilySearch Indexing. “Until the records are indexed online, they can only be discovered by browsing through often enormous collections of digital images. With a digital index, researchers can locate records in seconds by using a person’s name and other helpful information as search terms. A searchable index saves researchers time and effort by returning search results from the entire collection in a matter of seconds.”

Ericson says the new web-based indexing platform will enable more volunteers to participate worldwide and increase the rate at which FamilySearch can make indexed records accessible online. “It is a straight-forward experience that no longer requires people to download software,” said Ericson.

Using the new tool enables volunteer indexers to help make it possible for millions of people to have personal family history discoveries quickly with just a few keystrokes. Indexing also fuels hints, a new feature on FamilySearch.org that makes finding records even easier by mapping indexed records against a person’s family tree and sharing high probability ancestral matches with them.

The web-based indexing program also has new built-in helps, plus a lab section that allows you to test upcoming product features and enhancements for the new program.

For first-time volunteers, simple training provides step-by-step instructions. To participate, go to FamilySearch.org/indexing, and click the link to web indexing.

RELATED

Check out or plan to participate in the Worldwide Indexing EventOctober 20-22, 2017.

 

 

Family Search Partners with Social Media App Famicity

Access Sept 25, 2017: http://media.familysearch.org/familysearch-partners-with-social-media-app-famicity
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FamilySearch Partners with Social Media App Famicity

FamilySearch announced France-based Famicity.com as its newest partner. Famicity is a free and fun social media app (IOS and Android) and website that offers family members a private social network based on a family tree to collaboratively tell and preserve their family story and capture the stories of children as family life happens and evolves.  New users just need to go to Famicity.com to get started for free.

Famicity is an intuitive, app-based tool. It is simple to use, and encourages more communication between family members. Stories, photos, and videos are easily added and conveniently time stamped. It also allows users to give other family members permission to add to a story.

Today, families are spread out geographically and lean heavily on technology like social media to communicate and share family moments. Websites like Facebook aim to bring families closer together; however, these websites can be overwhelming and lack family focus with all the content being posted by a growing subscription of friends. Famicity is private and allows invited family members to focus on sharing and preserving family-focused content.

Created from the beginning as a social media platform, “Famicity understands the needs of FamilySearch.org users and that’s why we’ve reinvented social media for each and every member of a family to bond, grow, and celebrate their lives privately and securely,” said Famicity co-founder Guillaume Languereau. “Famicity members can already create their family tree on their own. This partnership makes it even easier for FamilySearch members to sign up with their account and automatically upload their family tree into Famicity to start an online family reunion in private.”

Personal control of one’s story is important to Famicity. No account holder has access to anyone else’s information, and the user can block others if the need arises.

Famicity offers easy-to-use features:

  • Home—shared family news and photo albums
  • Story—personal space for stories and albums
  • Tree—a family tree in which relatives collaborate
  • Inbox—an option for family-focused communications
  • My Family—shareable lists and contact information for family members

“Famicity is an ad free, user friendly, and safe family social media product for sharing family moments, emotions, and memories,” said FamilySearch’s partner marketing manager, Courtney Connolly.

Connolly explained that for current FamilySearch users, Famicity can read and automatically upload relevant data from their FamilySearch Family Tree. Plans are underway for a future Famicity release that will allow users to sync information between a user’s Famicity and FamilySearch Accounts.

To get started, users need to create a free account at Famicity.com. For FamilySearch accountholders, there will be instructions how to upload their FamilySearch information to their new Famicity account.

About FamilySearch

FamilySearch International is the largest genealogy organization in the world. FamilySearch is a nonprofit, volunteer-driven organization sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Millions of people use FamilySearch records, resources, and services to learn more about their family history. To help in this great pursuit, FamilySearch and its predecessors have been actively gathering, preserving, and sharing genealogical records worldwide for over 100 years. Patrons may access FamilySearch services and resources free online at FamilySearch.org or through over 5,000 family history centers in 129 countries, including the main Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.

About Famicity

Famicity is a social network platform that allows you to share cherished family memories simply and privately, with all your relatives. It’s a living record of your family at your fingertips, without compromising your family’s privacy and confidentiality, and families everywhere are eager to fund it. With Famicity you can write, share, organize and preserve the legacy of your extended family.

New GEDmatch Genesis Beta

 
 

 

GEDmatch Genesis

GEDmatch Genesis is a peek at things to come for GEDmatch. It provides two things:

    • Ability to accept uploads from testing companies with formats and SNP sets not compatible with the current main GEDmatch database.
  • A new comparison algorithm that we believe will provide better accuracy, and more flexibility. More info: The Genesis Algorithm

During this initial deployment, the GEDmatch Genesis database will be separate from the main GEDmatch database, and comparisons for one will not show entries made in the other. Eventually, the 2 databases will be merged, and results will include entries from both. Likewise, the benefits of the Genesis comparison algorithm will eventually become available to all GEDmatch users.

The initial offering of Genesis applications will be limited to autosomal DNA matches. That too will be expanded as we move forward in our effort to convert existing GEDmatch software to the new algorithm.

We hope you find this transition to GEDmatch Genesis useful.

 

 

 

The Genesis Algorithm

For several years, GEDmatch has provided genetic genealogists, both beginners and experts, the ability to search for matches among kits in their database without regard to vendor. Also, GEDmatch has provided a rich suite of analysis programs allowing users to dig deeply into the genetic details of their matches, enhance the reports from their vendors, and even pursue their own original research ideas. Our algorithms are evolving to extract the most trustworthy and meaningful matching information possible using the markers common to pairs of kits even though sometimes limited.

Unfortunately, all too often, kits appear to share a DNA segment purely by chance. To combat this confusing phenomenon, we recently have developed a reliability measure that allows users to assess the quality of a matching segment in an intuitively appealing fashion. We also use the measure to guide our matching algorithms as they wring the greatest amount of useful information possible from the markers common to pairs of kits.

If we could assume that marker characteristics were uniform in all regions within chromosomes, we could use a “one size fits all” requirement for matching segments as is sometimes done. Unfortunately, the relevant characteristics vary widely. Some long segments with few markers may be accidental matches. Some marker rich short segments are often discarded although they are profoundly non-random.

Using the characteristics of each and every marker in a segment, we compute the expected number of purely chance matches to it to be found in the database. That number is then used to classify the segment into one of several levels reflecting the likelihood that the random matches may overwhelm the real ones. When a user executes a one-to-many search or a one-to-one comparison specifying a minimum segment length, the display can then include an estimate of validity for each segment found.

One can assume those segments designated to be valid are the result of a DNA inheritance process rather than mere chance. Questions may still remain about how far back shared DNA originates, but a confounding factor has been removed.

sources:

https://genesis.gedmatch.com/select.php

https://genesis.gedmatch.com/Qblurb.html

 

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